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1. |||....... 25%  Raff JD, Njegic B, Chang WL, Gordon MS, Dabdub D, Gerber RB, Finlayson-Pitts BJ: Chlorine activation indoors and outdoors via surface-mediated reactions of nitrogen oxides with hydrogen chloride. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2009 Aug 18;106(33):13647-54
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  • [Title] Chlorine activation indoors and outdoors via surface-mediated reactions of nitrogen oxides with hydrogen chloride.
  • However, we show here a new surface-mediated coupling of nitrogen oxide and halogen activation cycles in which uptake of gaseous NO(2) or N(2)O(5) on solid substrates generates adsorbed intermediates that react with HCl to generate gaseous nitrosyl chloride (ClNO) and nitryl chloride (ClNO(2)), respectively.
  • These are potentially harmful gases that photolyze to form highly reactive chlorine atoms.
  • Airshed modeling incorporating HCl generated from sea salt shows that in coastal urban regions, this heterogeneous chemistry increases surface-level ozone, a criteria air pollutant, greenhouse gas and source of atmospheric oxidants.
  • This work also suggests the potential for chlorine atom chemistry to occur indoors where significant concentrations of oxides of nitrogen and HCl coexist.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Air Pollutants / analysis. Environmental Monitoring / methods. Gases. Hydrochloric Acid / chemistry. Models, Chemical. Molecular Conformation. Nitrogen / chemistry. Nitrogen Oxides / chemistry. Oxidants / chemistry. Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared. Surface Properties

  • HSDB. structure - HYDROCHLORIC ACID.
  • HSDB. structure - NITROGEN.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • [CommentIn] Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Aug 18;106(33):13639-40 [19706493.001]
  • [ErratumIn] Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Sep 29;106(39):16889
  • (PMID = 19620710.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-6490
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Air Pollutants; 0 / Gases; 0 / Nitrogen Oxides; 0 / Oxidants; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; N762921K75 / Nitrogen; QTT17582CB / Hydrochloric Acid
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2. ||........ 23%  Katano H, Uematsu K, Tatsumi H, Tsukatani T: Decomposition of free chlorine with tertiary ammonium. Anal Sci; 2010;26(3):349-53
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  • [Title] Decomposition of free chlorine with tertiary ammonium.
  • The reaction of free chlorine with tertiary ammonium or amine compounds in aqueous solution was studied by the amperometry at a rotating Pt-disk electrode.
  • The amperometric method can be applied to follow the concentration of free chlorine (c(Cl)) even in the presence of chloramine species.
  • By addition of mono- and dibutylammonium to the solution containing free chlorine, the step-like decrease in c(Cl) was observed, indicating the rapid formation of the stable chloramine species.
  • By addition of tributylammonium, the c(Cl) was decreased exponentially to nearly zero even if the free chlorine was present initially in excess.
  • The c(Cl)-t curves can be explained by tributylammonium-species-catalyzed decomposition of free chlorine to chloride ion.
  • Furthermore, the anion-exchange resins exhibited the decomposition of not only free chlorine but also chloramines in water.
  • [MeSH-major] Anion Exchange Resins / chemistry. Chlorine / analysis. Quaternary Ammonium Compounds / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Chloramines / analysis. Electrodes. Platinum / chemistry. Surface Properties

  • HSDB. structure - PLATINUM.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 20215685.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-2246
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical sciences : the international journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anion Exchange Resins; 0 / Chloramines; 0 / Quaternary Ammonium Compounds; 49DFR088MY / Platinum; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine
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3. ||........ 21%  Test ST, Lampert MB, Ossanna PJ, Thoene JG, Weiss SJ: Generation of nitrogen-chlorine oxidants by human phagocytes. J Clin Invest; 1984 Oct;74(4):1341-9
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  • [Title] Generation of nitrogen-chlorine oxidants by human phagocytes.
  • Human phagocytes can be triggered to generate large quantities of long-lived nitrogen-chlorine derivatives.
  • Unlike all other oxygen metabolites known to be generated by phagocytes, the nitrogen-chlorine compounds can be readily detected in cell supernatants 90 min after stimulation.
  • The generation of these oxidants is linear with neutrophil concentration, favored at alkaline pH, and inhibited by supraphysiologic concentrations of iodide or bromide.
  • Gel filtration chromatography of the accumulated nitrogen-chlorine derivatives revealed that the oxidants generated by neutrophils or monocytes are a complex mixture of products whose Mr range from 150-5,000.
  • One-half of the nitrogen chlorine derivatives migrate as a single peak with an Mr of approximately 150.
  • Neutrophils triggered in the presence of serum albumin accumulated increased amounts of the nitrogen-chlorine derivatives while continuing to generate their endogenous low Mr oxidants.
  • Quantitative analysis of the 36Cl incorporation revealed that the albumin molecule was chlorinated with the formation of both nitrogen-chlorine and carbon-chlorine bonds.
  • We conclude that human phagocytes can chlorinate both endogenous and exogenous nitrogenous compounds at inflammatory sites to generate a heterogeneous mixture of nitrogen-chlorine derivatives.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine / metabolism. Nitrogen / metabolism. Phagocytes / metabolism

  • HSDB. structure - NITROGEN.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • [Cites] Biochemistry. 1974 Dec 3;13(25):5069-73 [4433509.001]
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  • (PMID = 6090501.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9738
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / 5 R01 HL-28024-03; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI-21301
  • [Publication-type] In Vitro; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Albumins; 0 / Amines; 0 / Free Radicals; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; EC 1.11.1.7 / Peroxidase; N762921K75 / Nitrogen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC425301
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4. ||........ 19%  Nodelman V, Ultman JS: Longitudinal distribution of chlorine absorption in human airways: a comparison to ozone absorption. J Appl Physiol (1985); 1999 Dec;87(6):2073-80
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  • [Title] Longitudinal distribution of chlorine absorption in human airways: a comparison to ozone absorption.
  • The bolus inhalation method was used to measure the fraction of inhaled chlorine (Cl(2)) and ozone (O(3)) absorbed during a single breath as a function of longitudinal position in the respiratory system of 10 healthy nonsmokers during oral and nasal breathing at respired flows of 150, 250, and 1,000 ml/s.
  • At all experimental conditions, <5% of inspired Cl(2) penetrated beyond the upper airways and none reached the respiratory air spaces.
  • Mass transfer theory indicated that the diffusion resistance of the tissue phase was negligible for Cl(2) but important for O(3).
  • The gas phase resistances were the same for Cl(2) and O(3) and were directly correlated with the volume of the nose and mouth during nasal and oral breathing, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine / pharmacokinetics. Lung / metabolism. Ozone / pharmacokinetics

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Ozone.
  • HSDB. structure - OZONE.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 10601152.001).
  • [ISSN] 8750-7587
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Appl. Physiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES06075; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01RR10732
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; 66H7ZZK23N / Ozone
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5. ||........ 18%  Brudnik K, Twarda M, Sarzyński D, Jodkowski JT: Theoretical study of the kinetics of reactions of the monohalogenated methanes with atomic chlorine. J Mol Model; 2013 Apr;19(4):1489-505
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  • [Title] Theoretical study of the kinetics of reactions of the monohalogenated methanes with atomic chlorine.
  • Ab initio calculations at the G2 level were used in a theoretical description of the kinetics and mechanism of the hydrogen abstraction reactions from fluoro-, chloro- and bromomethane by chlorine atoms.
  • The profiles of the potential energy surfaces show that mechanism of the reactions under investigation is complex and consists of two - in the case of CH3F+Cl - and of three elementary steps for CH3Cl+Cl and CH3Br+Cl.
  • The heights of the energy barrier related to the H-abstraction are of 8-10 kJ mol(-1), the lowest value corresponds to CH3Cl+Cl and the highest one to CH3F+Cl.
  • The derived analytical equations for the reactions, CD3X+Cl, CH2X+HCl and CD2X+DCl (X = F, Cl and Br) are a substantial supplement of the kinetic data necessary for the description and modeling of the processes of importance in the atmospheric chemistry.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine / chemistry. Hydrocarbons, Brominated / chemistry. Methyl Chloride / chemistry. Models, Chemical. Ozone / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Atmosphere / chemistry. Catalysis. Global Warming. Hydrogen / chemistry. Kinetics. Methane / chemistry. Ozone Depletion. Temperature. Thermodynamics

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Ozone.
  • HSDB. structure - OZONE.
  • HSDB. structure - HYDROGEN.
  • HSDB. structure - METHANE.
  • HSDB. structure - METHYL BROMIDE.
  • HSDB. structure - METHYL CHLORIDE.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • [Cites] J Mol Model. 2008 Dec;14(12):1159-72 [18855022.001]
  • [Cites] J Mol Model. 2009 Sep;15(9):1061-6 [19205758.001]
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  • (PMID = 23239396.001).
  • [ISSN] 0948-5023
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of molecular modeling
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Mol Model
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hydrocarbons, Brominated; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; 66H7ZZK23N / Ozone; 74-83-9 / methyl bromide; 7YNJ3PO35Z / Hydrogen; A6R43525YO / Methyl Chloride; OP0UW79H66 / Methane
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3604598
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6. ||........ 18%  Sharp ZD, Shearer CK, McKeegan KD, Barnes JD, Wang YQ: The chlorine isotope composition of the moon and implications for an anhydrous mantle. Science; 2010 Aug 27;329(5995):1050-3
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  • [Title] The chlorine isotope composition of the moon and implications for an anhydrous mantle.
  • We measured the chlorine isotope composition of Apollo basalts and glasses and found that the range of isotopic values [from -1 to +24 per mil (per thousand) versus standard mean ocean chloride] is 25 times the range for Earth.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine / analysis. Hydrogen / analysis. Moon. Water
  • [MeSH-minor] Chlorides / analysis. Extraterrestrial Environment. Glass / chemistry. Isotopes / analysis. Metals. Silicates / chemistry. Volatilization

  • HSDB. structure - HYDROGEN.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 20688980.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-9203
  • [Journal-full-title] Science (New York, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Science
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chlorides; 0 / Isotopes; 0 / Metals; 0 / Silicates; 0 / basalt; 059QF0KO0R / Water; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; 7YNJ3PO35Z / Hydrogen
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7. ||........ 18%  Gottardi W, Nagl M: Chlorine covers on living bacteria: the initial step in antimicrobial action of active chlorine compounds. J Antimicrob Chemother; 2005 Apr;55(4):475-82
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  • [Title] Chlorine covers on living bacteria: the initial step in antimicrobial action of active chlorine compounds.
  • OBJECTIVES: Although active chlorine compounds are well-known antimicrobial agents in human medicine, their initial steps of action have not been completely clarified.
  • It was the aim of this study to investigate this 'chlorine cover'.
  • RESULTS: Superficial chlorination in the form of covalent N-Cl bonds to Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans could be attached before killing took place.
  • For S. aureus, 3 min incubation with NCT produced a cover of 3.3 x 10(-16) mol Cl(+)/cfu, while the cfu count was reduced by only 26%.
  • The kind of microorganism, coating time, pH, buffer system and, basically, the chlorine compound, influenced the cover strength.
  • Chlorine covers were surprisingly stable and could be detected for 3 h at 20 degrees C (>8 h at 1 degrees C), even without a reduction of cfu.
  • However, addition of 5% ammonium chloride caused a rapid loss of viability, explained by formation of highly bactericidal NH(2)Cl, an effect that resembles the ignition of a time-bomb.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The chlorine cover can be regarded as the first sign of interaction between chlorinating agent and microorganism, and may explain the non-lethal features of postantibiotic effect and attenuation of bacterial virulence.
  • [MeSH-major] Bacteria / drug effects. Chlorine. Chlorine Compounds / pharmacology. Disinfectants / pharmacology. Taurine / analogs & derivatives


8. ||........ 25%  Chi Y, Wang B, Yan J, Ni M: Influence of chlorine on methane oxidation. J Environ Sci (China); 2009;21(9):1315-20
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  • [Title] Influence of chlorine on methane oxidation.
  • Experiments on CH4/Cl2/O2/N2 oxidation were conducted in an atmospheric pressure flow reactor to understand the influence of chlorine on hydrocarbon oxidation in hazardous waste incineration.
  • The reaction temperature varied from 973 to 1273 K and the chlorine to hydrogen mole ratio (Cl/H) of the inlet mixture varied from 0 to 0.44.
  • It was found that the destruction and removal efficiency of CH4 increased with Cl/H mole ratio.
  • Increasing Cl/H favored COCl2 and CO formation and inhibited the CO oxidation process.
  • As Cl/H approached 0.44, the concentrations of CH2Cl2 and CH3Cl first increased, and then declined.
  • With a certain ratio of Cl/H, the concentrations of CO and COCl2 first increased and then declined.
  • It could be concluded that the presence of chlorine enhanced the destruction of CH4, but resulted in the more toxic incomplete combustion products emission such as COCl2 when the reaction temperature was not high enough.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine / chemistry. Hazardous Waste. Methane / chemistry

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  • HSDB. structure - METHANE.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 19999983.001).
  • [ISSN] 1001-0742
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of environmental sciences (China)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Environ Sci (China)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hazardous Waste; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; OP0UW79H66 / Methane
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9. ||........ 24%  Halperin SD, Britton R: Chlorine, an atom economical auxiliary for asymmetric aldol reactions. Org Biomol Chem; 2013 Feb 13;11(10):1702-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Chlorine, an atom economical auxiliary for asymmetric aldol reactions.
  • An auxiliary strategy has been developed for asymmetric reactions of aldehydes in which the auxiliary itself is not chiral, but a single chlorine atom introduced via organocatalytic α-chlorination.
  • The stereodirecting influence of the chlorine atom is then exploited prior to its removal by radical reduction.
  • [MeSH-major] Alcohols / chemical synthesis. Aldehydes / chemistry. Chlorine / chemistry

  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 23370443.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-0539
  • [Journal-full-title] Organic & biomolecular chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Org. Biomol. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Alcohols; 0 / Aldehydes; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine
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10. ||........ 24%  Alkan M, Oktay M, Kocakerim MM, Copur M: Solubility of chlorine in aqueous hydrochloric acid solutions. J Hazard Mater; 2005 Mar 17;119(1-3):13-8
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  • [Title] Solubility of chlorine in aqueous hydrochloric acid solutions.
  • The solubility of chlorine in aqueous hydrochloric acid solutions was studied.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine / chemistry. Hydrochloric Acid / chemistry

  • HSDB. structure - HYDROCHLORIC ACID.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 15752843.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3894
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hazardous materials
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Hazard. Mater.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; QTT17582CB / Hydrochloric Acid
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11. ||........ 18%  Nodelman V, Ultman JS: Longitudinal distribution of chlorine absorption in human airways: comparison of nasal and oral quiet breathing. J Appl Physiol (1985); 1999 Jun;86(6):1984-93
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Longitudinal distribution of chlorine absorption in human airways: comparison of nasal and oral quiet breathing.
  • The fraction of an inspired chlorine (Cl2) bolus absorbed during a single breath (Lambda) was measured as a function of bolus penetration (VP) into the respiratory system of five male and five female nonsmokers during both nasal and oral breathing at a quiet respiratory flow of 250 ml/s.
  • Changing the peak inhaled Cl2 concentration from 0.5 to 3.0 parts/million did not significantly affect the distribution of Cl2 absorption, suggesting that the underlying mass transport and chemical reaction processes were linear with respect to Cl2 concentration.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine / pharmacokinetics. Mouth Breathing / metabolism. Respiration. Respiratory System / metabolism

  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 10368365.001).
  • [ISSN] 8750-7587
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Appl. Physiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR-10732
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine
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12. ||........ 17%  Sharp DG, Young DC, Floyd R, Johnson JD: Effect of ionic environment on the inactivation of poliovirus in water by chlorine. Appl Environ Microbiol; 1980 Mar;39(3):530-4
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  • [Title] Effect of ionic environment on the inactivation of poliovirus in water by chlorine.
  • The rate of inactivation of poliovirus in water by chlorine is strongly influenced by the pH, which in turn influences the relative amounts of HOCl and OCl- that are present and acting on the virus in the region of pH 6 to 10.
  • The major part of the sharp increase in disinfection rate seen with this salt is thought to be due to its effect on the virus itself resulting in an increased chlorine sensitivity, especially at high pH.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine / pharmacology. Poliovirus / drug effects. Water Microbiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Osmolar Concentration. Sodium Chloride / pharmacology

  • HSDB. structure - SODIUM CHLORIDE.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • [Cites] Virology. 1967 Oct;33(2):335-43 [4293235.001]
  • [Cites] Appl Environ Microbiol. 1976 Feb;31(2):173-81 [11743.001]
  • [Cites] Appl Environ Microbiol. 1976 Feb;31(2):298-303 [11745.001]
  • [Cites] Appl Environ Microbiol. 1977 Jan;33(1):159-67 [13711.001]
  • [Cites] Arch Virol. 1976;52(4):269-82 [13766.001]
  • [Cites] Appl Environ Microbiol. 1978 Jun;35(6):1079-83 [28077.001]
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  • (PMID = 6247973.001).
  • [ISSN] 0099-2240
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied and environmental microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; 7647-14-5 / Sodium Chloride
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC291372
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13. ||........ 17%  Alvarez ME, O'Brien RT: Mechanisms of inactivation of poliovirus by chlorine dioxide and iodine. Appl Environ Microbiol; 1982 Nov;44(5):1064-71
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  • [Title] Mechanisms of inactivation of poliovirus by chlorine dioxide and iodine.
  • Chlorine dioxide and iodine inactivated poliovirus more efficiently at pH 10.0 than at pH 6.0.
  • Sedimentation analyses of viruses inactivated by chlorine dioxide and iodine at pH 10.9 showed that viral RNA separated from the capsids, resulting in the conversion of virions from 156S structures to 80S particles.
  • The RNAs release from both chlorine dioxide- and iodine-inactivated viruses cosedimented with intact 35S viral RNA.
  • Both chlorine dioxide and iodine reacted with the capsid proteins of poliovirus and changed the pI from pH 7.0 to pH 5.8.
  • However, the mechanisms of inactivation of poliovirus by chlorine dioxide and iodine were found to differ.
  • Iodine inactivated viruses by impairing their ability to adsorb to HeLa cells, whereas chlorine dioxide-inactivated viruses showed a reduced incorporation of [14C]uridine into new viral RNA.
  • We concluded, then, that chlorine dioxide inactivated poliovirus by reacting with the viral RNA and impairing the ability of the viral genome to act as a template for RNA synthesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine / pharmacology. Chlorine Compounds. Disinfectants / pharmacology. Iodine / pharmacology. Oxides / pharmacology. Poliovirus / drug effects. RNA, Viral / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adsorption. Capsid. Centrifugation, Density Gradient. HeLa Cells. Humans. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Isoelectric Point

  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE DIOXIDE.
  • HSDB. structure - IODINE.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • [Cites] Appl Microbiol. 1965 Sep;13(5):776-80 [5325940.001]
  • [Cites] Virology. 1971 Jun;44(3):554-68 [4332969.001]
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  • [Cites] Appl Environ Microbiol. 1979 Dec;38(6):1034-9 [230785.001]
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  • [Cites] Appl Environ Microbiol. 1981 Nov;42(5):824-9 [6274256.001]
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  • (PMID = 6295277.001).
  • [ISSN] 0099-2240
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied and environmental microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chlorine Compounds; 0 / Disinfectants; 0 / Oxides; 0 / RNA, Viral; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; 8061YMS4RM / chlorine dioxide; 9679TC07X4 / Iodine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC242149
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14. ||........ 17%  Ridgway HF, Olson BH: Chlorine resistance patterns of bacteria from two drinking water distribution systems. Appl Environ Microbiol; 1982 Oct;44(4):972-87
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  • [Title] Chlorine resistance patterns of bacteria from two drinking water distribution systems.
  • The relative chlorine sensitivities of bacteria isolated from chlorinated and unchlorinated drinking water distribution systems were compared by two independent methods.
  • One method measured the toxic effect of free chlorine on bacteria, whereas the other measured the effect of combined chlorine.
  • Bacteria from the chlorinated system were more resistant to both the combined and free forms of chlorine than those from the unchlorinated system, suggesting that there may be selection for more chlorine-tolerant microorganisms in chlorinated waters.
  • Bacteria retained on the surfaces of 2.0-microns Nuclepore membrane filters were significantly more resistant to free chlorine compared to the total microbial population recovered on 0.2-micron membrane filters, presumably because aggregated cells or bacteria attached to suspended particulate matter exhibit more resistance than unassociated microorganisms.
  • The most resistant microorganisms were able to survive a 2-min exposure to 10 mg of free chlorine per liter.
  • The most sensitive bacteria were readily killed by chlorine concentrations of 1.0 mg liter-1 or less, and included most gram-positive micrococci, Corynebacterium/Arthrobacter, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas/Alcaligenes, Flavobacterium/Moraxella, and Acinetobacter.
  • [MeSH-major] Bacteria / drug effects. Chlorine / pharmacology. Microbial Sensitivity Tests / methods. Water Microbiology. Water Supply

  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • [Cites] Appl Microbiol. 1967 Mar;15(2):257-65 [5339839.001]
  • [Cites] Biochim Biophys Acta. 1973 Jun 20;313(1):170-80 [4745674.001]
  • [Cites] Soc Appl Bacteriol Symp Ser. 1973 Jan;2:155-78 [4584094.001]
  • [Cites] Appl Microbiol. 1975 Feb;29(2):186-94 [803815.001]
  • [Cites] Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand Suppl. 1975 Dec;83(6):525-33 [1106114.001]
  • [Cites] J Bacteriol. 1976 Mar;125(3):934-45 [815252.001]
  • [Cites] Science. 1976 Jun 11;192(4244):1141-3 [818709.001]
  • [Cites] J Water Pollut Control Fed. 1977 Jun;49(6):1067-74 [328933.001]
  • [Cites] Appl Environ Microbiol. 1977 Dec;34(6):849-53 [202195.001]
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  • [Cites] Can J Microbiol. 1979 Sep;25(9):1058-62 [540261.001]
  • [Cites] J Water Pollut Control Fed. 1980 Jul;52(7):1976-89 [6995623.001]
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  • (PMID = 7149722.001).
  • [ISSN] 0099-2240
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied and environmental microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC242125
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15. ||........ 16%  Ishii K, Ueno Y: Production of the hepatotoxic chlorine-containing peptide by Penicillium islandicum Sopp. Appl Microbiol; 1973 Sep;26(3):359-63
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  • [Title] Production of the hepatotoxic chlorine-containing peptide by Penicillium islandicum Sopp.
  • Twenty-six strains of Penicillium islandicum Sopp were tested for production of a chlorine-containing peptide (Cl-peptide), which is a hepatotoxin.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adsorption. Animals. Butanols. Charcoal. Chlorine. Chromatography, Gel. Culture Media. Injections, Intraperitoneal. Male. Mice. Peptides / isolation & purification. Peptides / toxicity. Species Specificity

  • HSDB. structure - CHARCOAL.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
  • StrainInfo. culture/stock collections - online strain list (subscription/membership/fee required).
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  • [Cites] Appl Microbiol. 1969 Sep;18(3):406-9 [5373676.001]
  • [Cites] J Biochem. 1970 Jun;67(6):753-8 [5448846.001]
  • [Cites] Food Cosmet Toxicol. 1972 Apr;10(2):193-207 [4342127.001]
  • (PMID = 4751792.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-6919
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Butanols; 0 / Culture Media; 0 / Mycotoxins; 0 / Peptides; 16291-96-6 / Charcoal; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC379790
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16. ||........ 24%  Mondelli C, Amrute AP, Moser M, Schmidt T, Pérez-Ramírez J: Development of industrial catalysts for sustainable chlorine production. Chimia (Aarau); 2012;66(9):694-8
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  • [Title] Development of industrial catalysts for sustainable chlorine production.
  • The heterogeneously catalyzed gas-phase oxidation of HCl to Cl(2) offers an energy-efficient and eco- friendly route to recover chlorine from HCl-containing byproduct streams in the chemical industry.
  • This process has attracted renewed interest in the last decade due to an increased chlorine demand and the growing excess of byproduct HCl from chlorination processes.
  • Recently, RuO(2)-based catalysts with outstanding activity and stability have been designed and they are being implemented for large-scale Cl(2) recycling.
  • [MeSH-major] Chemical Industry. Chlorine / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Catalysis. Cerium / chemistry. X-Ray Diffraction

  • HSDB. structure - DICERIUM TRIOXIDE.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 23211728.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4293
  • [Journal-full-title] Chimia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chimia (Aarau)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 30K4522N6T / Cerium; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; 619G5K328Y / ceric oxide
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17. ||........ 23%  Khristova P, Tomkinson J, Dimitrov I, Valchev I, Jones GL: Totally chlorine-free bleaching of flax pulp. Bioresour Technol; 2002 Oct;85(1):79-85
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  • [Title] Totally chlorine-free bleaching of flax pulp.
  • Alkaline-sulphite Tamlin flax mill pulp of 34-41% brightness has been bleached with different totally chlorine-free (TCF) sequences (oxygen delignification, pressurised peroxide, peroxide without and with activator (TAED, tetraacetylethylenediamine) and with and without pre-treatment with ultrasound to 82% ISO brightness of the mill conventional CEH bleaching.
  • The chemistry and flexibility of TAED made it possible to activate the peroxide under conditions for which the peroxide alone is ineffective as a bleach, such as low alkalinity or low temperature.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine. Flax / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Acetamides / pharmacology. Anions / chemistry. Biotechnology. Chelating Agents / pharmacology. Edetic Acid / pharmacology. Ethylenediamines. Hydrogen Peroxide / chemistry. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Oxygen. Peracetic Acid / chemistry. Sulfites / chemistry. Temperature. Time Factors. Viscosity

  • HSDB. structure - ETHYLENEDIAMINE TETRAACETIC ACID.
  • HSDB. structure - HYDROGEN PEROXIDE.
  • HSDB. structure - OXYGEN.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
  • HSDB. structure - PERACETIC ACID.
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  • (PMID = 12146648.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-8524
  • [Journal-full-title] Bioresource technology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bioresour. Technol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acetamides; 0 / Anions; 0 / Chelating Agents; 0 / Ethylenediamines; 0 / N,N'-ethylenebis(N-acetylacetamide); 0 / Sulfites; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; 9G34HU7RV0 / Edetic Acid; BBX060AN9V / Hydrogen Peroxide; I6KPI2E1HD / Peracetic Acid; S88TT14065 / Oxygen
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18. ||........ 23%  Balmukhanov B, Basenova A: [The effect of chlorine diffusion potential on electrophoretic mobility and erythrocyte sedimentation in diluted suspensions]. Biofizika; 1994 Jul-Aug;39(4):686-90
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  • [Title] [The effect of chlorine diffusion potential on electrophoretic mobility and erythrocyte sedimentation in diluted suspensions].
  • Electrophoretic activity of human erythrocytes in isotonic medium with reduced NaCl content does not depend on the outer electric field strength when pH decreases from 7.3 to 5.5.
  • At pH approximately equal to 5.3 the measured values of electrophoretic mobility drop with decrease of the outer electric field strength starting at 600-700 V/m.
  • Estimated values of the chlorine diffusion potential in these conditions exceed the value 70-80 mV, at which the erythrocyte membrane permeability changes.
  • It is suggested that the observed dependency of electrophoretic mobility on the field strength is caused by ion flows through the erythrocyte membrane leading to diffusion non-equilibrium in the electrolyte layer close to the membrane.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Blood Sedimentation. Cell Membrane Permeability. Diffusion. Electrophoresis. Erythrocyte Membrane / physiology. Humans. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Osmolar Concentration

  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 7981276.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-3029
  • [Journal-full-title] Biofizika
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biofizika
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] RUSSIA
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine
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19. ||........ 23%  Ma W, Hoffmann G, Schirmer M, Chen G, Rotter VS: Chlorine characterization and thermal behavior in MSW and RDF. J Hazard Mater; 2010 Jun 15;178(1-3):489-98
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Chlorine characterization and thermal behavior in MSW and RDF.
  • Chlorine, as a key element causing high temperature corrosion and low efficiency in waste-to-energy plants, and its thermal behavior has widely drawn attention.
  • In this study, the chlorine content in eight fractions of municipal solid waste (MSW) was quantified and characterized using five analytical methods.
  • The influence of the operating temperature, and fuel additives like sulfur and silica on the volatilization of chlorine in combustion process was also investigated.
  • The results showed: these fractions cover a wide range of chlorine content from 0.1 wt.
  • Polyvinylchloride (PVC) from packaging, electrical wire insulation etc. in plastics and chloride salts (mainly NaCl) in kitchen waste are the main sources of organic and inorganic chlorine.
  • Silica supports the chlorine release at relatively low temperatures between 700 degrees C and 850 degrees C.
  • These findings enhance to understand the thermal behavior of chlorine in MSW and RDF (refuse derived fuel) in waste-to-energy plants and lead to the suggestions for a fuel management for waste derived fuels in order to avoid chlorine induced corrosion.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine / analysis. Fuel Oils / analysis. Refuse Disposal / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Calorimetry. Filtration. Hot Temperature. Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated / analysis. Incineration. Oxygen / chemistry. Polyvinyl Chloride / chemistry. Silicon Dioxide / chemistry. Sulfur / chemistry. Temperature. Thermodynamics

  • HSDB. structure - SILICON DIOXIDE.
  • HSDB. structure - SULFUR.
  • HSDB. structure - OXYGEN.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
  • HSDB. structure - POLYVINYL CHLORIDE.
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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20171781.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-3336
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hazardous materials
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Hazard. Mater.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fuel Oils; 0 / Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; 70FD1KFU70 / Sulfur; 7631-86-9 / Silicon Dioxide; 9002-86-2 / Polyvinyl Chloride; S88TT14065 / Oxygen
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20. ||........ 23%  Bryce DL, Sward GD: Chlorine-35/37 NMR spectroscopy of solid amino acid hydrochlorides: refinement of hydrogen-bonded proton positions using experiment and theory. J Phys Chem B; 2006 Dec 28;110(51):26461-70
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  • [Title] Chlorine-35/37 NMR spectroscopy of solid amino acid hydrochlorides: refinement of hydrogen-bonded proton positions using experiment and theory.
  • Trends in the chlorine chemical shift (CS) tensors of amino acid hydrochlorides are investigated in the context of new data obtained at 21.1 T and extensive quantum chemical calculations.
  • The analysis of chlorine-35/37 NMR spectra of solid L-tryptophan hydrochloride obtained at two magnetic field strengths yields the chlorine electric field gradient (EFG) and CS tensors, and their relative orientations.
  • The chlorine CS tensor is also determined for the first time for DL-arginine hydrochloride monohydrate.
  • The chlorine CS tensor spans (Omega) of hydrochloride salts of hydrophobic amino acids are found to be larger than those for salts of hydrophilic amino acids.
  • A new combined experimental-theoretical procedure is described in which quantum chemical geometry optimizations of hydrogen-bonded proton positions around the chloride ions in a series of amino acid hydrochlorides are cross-validated against the experimental chlorine EFG and CS tensor data.
  • The conclusion is reached that the relatively computationally inexpensive B3LYP/3-21G* method provides proton positions which are suitable for subsequent higher-level calculations of the chlorine EFG tensors.
  • The results suggest the applicability of chlorine NMR interaction tensors in the refinement of proton positions in structurally similar compounds, e.g., chloride ion channels, for which neutron diffraction data are unavailable.
  • [MeSH-major] Amino Acids / chemistry. Chlorine / chemistry

  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 17181306.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-6106
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of physical chemistry. B
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Phys Chem B
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Amino Acids; 0 / Protons; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine
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21. ||........ 22%  Liu C, Gao NY, Dong BZ, Liu SQ, Zhao JF: [Effect of chlorine on PAC's ability to adsorb microcystin]. Huan Jing Ke Xue; 2007 May;28(5):997-1000
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  • [Title] [Effect of chlorine on PAC's ability to adsorb microcystin].
  • Bottle-point experiments were conducted in Huangpu river raw water to examine the extent to which chlorine influenced the ability of powdered activated carbon (PAC) to adsorb two kinds of microcystins (MC-RR and MC-LR).
  • The result shows that,when adding PAC and chlorine at the same point, chlorine can enhance the removal effect of the combined process (about 20%), which may be because the surface of PAC catalyzes the reaction between mirocystin and chlorine molecule, when adding PAC and chlorine at different points, the strengthening effect disappear [chlorine reduces the ability of PAC to microcystins to some extent (5%-10%)], the effect of chlorine to PAC becomes weak when raise the dosage of PAC.
  • [MeSH-major] Charcoal / chemistry. Chlorine / chemistry. Microcystins / chemistry. Water Pollutants, Chemical / isolation & purification

  • HSDB. structure - CHARCOAL.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 17633168.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-3301
  • [Journal-full-title] Huan jing ke xue= Huanjing kexue / [bian ji, Zhongguo ke xue yuan huan jing ke xue wei yuan hui "Huan jing ke xue" bian ji wei yuan hui.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Huan Jing Ke Xue
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Microcystins; 0 / Water Pollutants, Chemical; 101043-37-2 / cyanoginosin LR; 111755-37-4 / microcystin RR; 16291-96-6 / Charcoal; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine
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22. ||........ 22%  Gao W, Baker TA, Zhou L, Pinnaduwage DS, Kaxiras E, Friend CM: Chlorine adsorption on Au(111): chlorine overlayer or surface chloride? J Am Chem Soc; 2008 Mar 19;130(11):3560-5
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  • [Title] Chlorine adsorption on Au(111): chlorine overlayer or surface chloride?
  • We report the first scanning tunneling microscope (STM) investigation, combined with density functional theory calculations, to resolve controversy regarding the bonding and structure of chlorine adsorbed on Au(111).
  • STM experiments are carried out at 120 K to overcome instability caused by mobile species upon chlorine adsorption at room temperature.
  • Chlorine adsorption initially lifts the herringbone reconstruction.
  • At low coverages (<0.33 ML), chlorine binds to the top of Au(111)-(1 x 1) surface and leads to formation of an overlayer with (square root(3) x square root(3))R30 degree structure at 0.33 ML.
  • At higher coverages, packing chlorine into an overlayer structure is no longer favored.
  • Gold atoms incorporate into a complex superlattice of a Au-Cl surface compound.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine / chemistry. Gold / chemistry

  • HSDB. structure - GOLD.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
  • COS Scholar Universe. author profiles.
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  • (PMID = 18290645.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-5126
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Chemical Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Chem. Soc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; 7440-57-5 / Gold
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23. ||........ 22%  Faure J, Arsac P, Bouissou X, Barret L: [Poisoning with chlorine gas. Immediate and late sequelae]. Toxicol Eur Res; 1983 Sep;5(5):207-10
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  • [Title] [Poisoning with chlorine gas. Immediate and late sequelae].
  • [Transliterated title] Intoxication par les vapeurs de chlore. Suites immediates et tardives.
  • The goal of this study is to appreciate the early and late sequelae caused by Chlorine Gas.
  • Chlorine exposure even when frequent has no the influence on the FRE results or the appearance of pulmonary pathology.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine / poisoning. Gas Poisoning / physiopathology

  • HSDB. structure - CARBON DIOXIDE.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 6426087.001).
  • [ISSN] 0249-6402
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicological European research. Recherche européenne en toxicologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol Eur Res
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] FRANCE
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 142M471B3J / Carbon Dioxide; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine
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24. ||........ 21%  Khachatryan L, Dellinger B: Formation of chlorinated hydrocarbons from the reaction of chlorine atoms and activated carbon. Chemosphere; 2003 Jul;52(4):709-16
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  • [Title] Formation of chlorinated hydrocarbons from the reaction of chlorine atoms and activated carbon.
  • The reactions of chlorine atoms and activated carbon have been studied over the temperature range of 200-400 degrees C using an isothermal flow reactor in conjunction with 337 nm laser photolysis of Cl2.
  • These studies have shown that carbon tetrachloride is the major product, with chloroform, methylene chloride, and methyl chloride being formed in progressively decreasing yields.
  • Mechanisms of carbon fragmentation by successive addition of chlorine atoms are proposed.
  • The formation of small chlorinated hydrocarbons by the direct reaction of chlorine with carbon may be a key link in both the de novo and precursor pathways of formation of PCDD/F.
  • [MeSH-major] Carbon / chemistry. Chlorine / chemistry. Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Carbon Tetrachloride / chemistry. Chloroform / chemistry. Methyl Chloride / chemistry. Methylene Chloride / chemistry. Molecular Weight. Photolysis. Spontaneous Combustion. Temperature


25. ||........ 21%  Fiessinger F, Richard Y, Montiel A, Musquere P: Advantages and disadvantages of chemical oxidation and disinfection by ozone and chlorine dioxide. Sci Total Environ; 1981 Apr;18:245-61
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  • [Title] Advantages and disadvantages of chemical oxidation and disinfection by ozone and chlorine dioxide.
  • Ozone and chlorine dioxide present definite advantages and disadvantages over chlorination.
  • Ozone and chlorine dioxide seem to produce fewer carcinogenic by-products but the risk for acute toxicity, especially from the chlorites which follow chlorine dioxide, is higher than with chlorine.
  • Chlorine dioxide and more particularly ozone should be considered as useful complements to chlorination, but no strong oxidative treatment should be applied before most of the organic matter has been removed.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine. Chlorine Compounds. Disinfectants. Oxides. Ozone. Water Supply / standards

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Ozone.
  • HSDB. structure - OZONE.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE DIOXIDE.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 7233164.001).
  • [ISSN] 0048-9697
  • [Journal-full-title] The Science of the total environment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sci. Total Environ.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] NETHERLANDS
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chlorine Compounds; 0 / Disinfectants; 0 / Oxides; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; 66H7ZZK23N / Ozone; 8061YMS4RM / chlorine dioxide
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26. ||........ 21%  McDonald D, Pope H, Miskelly GM: The effect of chlorine and hydrogen chloride on latent fingermark evidence. Forensic Sci Int; 2008 Jul 18;179(1):70-7
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  • [Title] The effect of chlorine and hydrogen chloride on latent fingermark evidence.
  • Exposure of forensic evidence to either hydrogen chloride or chlorine can result in acidification to such an extent that enhancement of fingermarks with ninhydrin or cyanoacrylate is inhibited.
  • Alternatively, physical enhancement techniques such as powder dusting or small particle reagent can be used on acidified non-porous substrates, although the former technique is subject to increased background under such conditions.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine / chemistry. Dermatoglyphics. Hydrochloric Acid / chemistry

  • HSDB. structure - HYDROCHLORIC ACID.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 18538958.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-6283
  • [Journal-full-title] Forensic science international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Forensic Sci. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyanoacrylates; 0 / Indicators and Reagents; 0 / Powders; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; QTT17582CB / Hydrochloric Acid
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27. ||........ 21%  Suh DH, Abdel-Rahman MS: Mechanism of chloroform formation by chlorine and its inhibition by chlorine dioxide. Fundam Appl Toxicol; 1985 Apr;5(2):305-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mechanism of chloroform formation by chlorine and its inhibition by chlorine dioxide.
  • Chlorination of drinking waters leads to the formation of trihalomethanes arising from the reaction of chlorine and organic substances.
  • Therefore, chlorine dioxide (ClO2) which does not produce trihalomethanes is being considered as an alternative disinfectant.
  • Studies were conducted to investigate the mechanisms of chloroform formation by chlorine (HOCl) and its inhibition by ClO2 (5 mg/liter) in the presence of HOCl (5, 10, 20 mg/liter) using sodium citrate (1 mM) as an organic substance.
  • Chlorine dioxide also oxidizes other intermediates such as monochloroacetone and dichloroacetone to acetic acid.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine. Chlorine Compounds. Chloroform / chemical synthesis. Oxides
  • [MeSH-minor] Acetone / analogs & derivatives. Chemical Phenomena. Chemistry. Chromatography, Gas / methods. Citrates. Citric Acid. Ketoglutaric Acids. Malonates. Molecular Conformation. Water Supply

  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE DIOXIDE.
  • HSDB. structure - THALLOUS MALONATE.
  • HSDB. structure - ACETONE.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLOROFORM.
  • HSDB. structure - CITRIC ACID.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
  • HSDB. structure - 1-CHLORO-2-PROPANONE.
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  • (PMID = 3988001.001).
  • [ISSN] 0272-0590
  • [Journal-full-title] Fundamental and applied toxicology : official journal of the Society of Toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fundam Appl Toxicol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chlorine Compounds; 0 / Citrates; 0 / Ketoglutaric Acids; 0 / Malonates; 0 / Oxides; 1364PS73AF / Acetone; 2968PHW8QP / Citric Acid; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; 60ZTR74268 / chloroacetone; 7V31YC746X / Chloroform; 8061YMS4RM / chlorine dioxide; 9KX7ZMG0MK / malonic acid
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28. ||........ 21%  Sanković K, Krilov D, Pranjić-Petrović T, Hüttermann J, Herak JN: Nature of the chlorine-centred paramagnetic species in irradiated crystals of cytosine hydrochloride doped with thiocytosine. Int J Radiat Biol; 1996 Nov;70(5):603-8
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  • [Title] Nature of the chlorine-centred paramagnetic species in irradiated crystals of cytosine hydrochloride doped with thiocytosine.
  • It has been demonstrated that the paramagnetic species formed in crystals of cytosine hydrochloride doped with thiocytosine are most likely the radicals formed by association of thiocytosine and chlorine.
  • The unpaired electron is positively identified on the Cl atom and on at least one of the pyrimidine atoms, and the data are consistent with the formation of the 'three-electron' S-Cl sigma sigma * bonds.
  • The spin density derived from the measured 35Cl and 14N coupling tensors compare reasonably well with the MO calculations for the 'in-plane' conformations of three hypothetical radicals formed by initial ionization of either thiocytosine or Cl- followed by their reaction.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine / chemistry. Cytosine / radiation effects. Magnetics

  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
  • IndexCopernicus. author profiles.
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  • (PMID = 8947542.001).
  • [ISSN] 0955-3002
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Sulfhydryl Compounds; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; 8J337D1HZY / Cytosine
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29. ||........ 21%  Smith RP, Willhite CC: Chlorine dioxide and hemodialysis. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol; 1990 Feb;11(1):42-62
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  • [Title] Chlorine dioxide and hemodialysis.
  • An alternative to chlorination which does not generate THM during disinfection is chlorine dioxide, but there are concerns about the acute and chronic toxicity of ClO2 and its disinfection by-products, chlorite and chlorate.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine / toxicity. Chlorine Compounds. Disinfectants / toxicity. Oxides / toxicity. Renal Dialysis. Water Supply / analysis

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Dialysis.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE DIOXIDE.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 2184465.001).
  • [ISSN] 0273-2300
  • [Journal-full-title] Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL-14127
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chlorine Compounds; 0 / Disinfectants; 0 / Oxides; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; 8061YMS4RM / chlorine dioxide
  • [Number-of-references] 90
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30. ||........ 21%  Rao B, Anderson TA, Redder A, Jackson WA: Perchlorate formation by ozone oxidation of aqueous chlorine/oxy-chlorine species: role of ClxOy radicals. Environ Sci Technol; 2010 Apr 15;44(8):2961-7
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  • [Title] Perchlorate formation by ozone oxidation of aqueous chlorine/oxy-chlorine species: role of ClxOy radicals.
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the comparative yields and rates of ClO4(-) production from O3 mediated oxidation of Cl(-), OCl(-), ClO2(-), ClO3(-), and ClO2.
  • The influence of reactant (O3 and ClOx(-)) concentration and pH were evaluated.
  • The comparative rate and efficiency of ClO4(-) production is generally greater for higher oxidation states of Cl (2.7 to 0.5% for ClO2(-)/ClO2 and 0.02 to 0.005% for OCl(-)/HOCl oxidation) with the notable exception of ClO3(-) which does not react with O3.
  • The very slow rate of ClO4(-) production from Cl(-) ( approximately 20 x 10(-9) mM min(-1)) even at elevated O3 and Cl(-) concentrations implies negligible potential for anthropogenic ClO4(-) formation in process units of water/wastewater systems that use O3 for treatment.
  • Based on results of ClO4(-) formation from tested Cl species and available literature, we propose a potential formation pathway for ClO4(-) from Cl(-) with emphasis on the role of ClO2 and higher oxy-chlorine radicals/intermediates (e.g., Cl2O6) in its formation.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine / chemistry. Ozone / chemistry. Perchlorates / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Oxidation-Reduction

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Ozone.
  • HSDB. structure - OZONE.
  • HSDB. structure - PERCHLORIC ACID.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
  • COS Scholar Universe. author profiles.
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  • (PMID = 20345093.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-936X
  • [Journal-full-title] Environmental science & technology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Environ. Sci. Technol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Perchlorates; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; 66H7ZZK23N / Ozone
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31. ||........ 21%  Westerhoff P, Chao P, Mash H: Reactivity of natural organic matter with aqueous chlorine and bromine. Water Res; 2004 Mar;38(6):1502-13
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  • [Title] Reactivity of natural organic matter with aqueous chlorine and bromine.
  • While both aqueous bromine (HOBr/OBr(-)) and chlorine (HOCl/OCl(-)) react with natural organic matter (NOM) during water treatment, limited direct parallel comparison of bromine versus chlorine has been conducted.
  • Experiments with model compounds and natural waters indicated more efficient substitution reactions with bromine than chlorine.
  • Kinetic experiments with NOM isolates with and without pre-ozonation were conducted to obtain second-order rate constants (k) with bromine and chlorine.
  • Bromine reacted about 10 times faster than chlorine with NOM isolates during both stages.
  • For the slower second stage k values for bromine were 15 to 167 M(-1)s(-1) over the pH range of 5-11, and lower for chlorine (k = 0.7-5M(-1)s(-1)).
  • Values of k correlated with initial SUVA values of NOM (UVA measured at 254 nm divided by DOC).
  • Based upon UV/VIS and solid-state (13)C-NMR spectroscopy, chlorine addition to a NOM isolate resulted in significant oxidation of aromatic and ketone groups while bromine had significantly less change in spectra.
  • Overall, the improved knowledge that bromine reacts faster and substitutes more efficiently than chlorine will be useful in developing strategies to control disinfection by-product formation during water treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Bromine / chemistry. Chlorine / chemistry. Water Pollutants / analysis. Water Purification / methods

  • HSDB. structure - BROMINE.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 15016527.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-1354
  • [Journal-full-title] Water research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Water Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organic Chemicals; 0 / Water Pollutants; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; SBV4XY874G / Bromine
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32. ||........ 20%  McCann BW, Song H, Kocer HB, Cerkez I, Acevedo O, Worley SD: Inter- and intramolecular mechanisms for chlorine rearrangements in trimethyl-substituted N-chlorohydantoins. J Phys Chem A; 2012 Jul 5;116(26):7245-52
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  • [Title] Inter- and intramolecular mechanisms for chlorine rearrangements in trimethyl-substituted N-chlorohydantoins.
  • The measured rate of loss of oxidative chlorine in the absence and presence of exposure to UVA irradiation determined 2 to be less stable than 1.
  • An interesting migration reaction was observed during UVA irradiation that featured the production of chlorine rearrangement and dechlorinated compounds.
  • The intermolecular reaction pathway, unlike the intramolecular route, also predicted the lack of formation of a migration product featuring a Cl covalently bonded to a methylene group at the 5-position of the hydantoin moiety, which was verified by NMR experiments.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine / chemistry. Hydantoins / chemistry. Quantum Theory

  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 22671993.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-5215
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of physical chemistry. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Phys Chem A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hydantoins; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine
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33. ||........ 20%  Gough BM, Whitehouse ME, Greenwood CT: The role and function of chlorine in the preparation of high-ratio cake flour. CRC Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr; 1978;10(1):91-113
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  • [Title] The role and function of chlorine in the preparation of high-ratio cake flour.
  • The literature on the role of chlorine treatment of flour for use in high-ratio cake production is discussed in relation to current knowledge of cereal chemistry and cake technology.
  • A brief perspective of the present use of chlorine in high-ratio cake flours is included.
  • Investigations of the uptake of gaseous chlorine by flour and its distribution among and chemical action upon the major flour components (water, protein, lipid, and carbohydrate) are assessed.
  • The physical effects of chlorination as demonstrated by experiments with batters and cakes and by physicochemical observations of flour and its fractions are also considered.
  • The characteristics of the starch in flour appear to be critical in high-ratio cakes.
  • Chlorine treatment modifies the gelatinization behavior of the starch granules yet does not change their gelatinization temperature not is there evidence of chemical attack upon the starch molecules.
  • Therefore, it is suggested that chlorine effects the necessary changes in starch behavior by reacting with the noncarbohydrate surface contaminants on the granules.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine. Flour. Triticum
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemical Phenomena. Chemistry. Cooking / standards. Fats. Food Technology. Hot Temperature. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Polysaccharides. Starch. Viscosity. Zea mays

  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 31265.001).
  • [ISSN] 0099-0248
  • [Journal-full-title] CRC critical reviews in food science and nutrition
  • [ISO-abbreviation] CRC Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fats; 0 / Polysaccharides; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; 9005-25-8 / Starch
  • [Number-of-references] 92
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34. ||........ 20%  Westaway KC, Fang YR, MacMillar S, Matsson O, Poirier RA, Islam SM: A new insight into using chlorine leaving group and nucleophile carbon kinetic isotope effects to determine substituent effects on the structure of SN2 transition states. J Phys Chem A; 2007 Aug 23;111(33):8110-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A new insight into using chlorine leaving group and nucleophile carbon kinetic isotope effects to determine substituent effects on the structure of SN2 transition states.
  • Chlorine leaving group k(35)/k(37), nucleophile carbon k(11)/k(14), and secondary alpha-deuterium [(kH/kD)alpha] kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) have been measured for the SN2 reactions between para-substituted benzyl chlorides and tetrabutylammonium cyanide in tetrahydrofuran at 20 degrees C to determine whether these isotope effects can be used to determine the substituent effect on the structure of the transition state.
  • The theoretical calculations at the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level of theory support this conclusion; i.e., they suggest that the transition states for these reactions are unsymmetric with a long NC-C(alpha) and reasonably short C(alpha)-Cl bonds.
  • The chlorine isotope effects suggest that these KIEs can be used to determine the substituent effects on transition state structure with the KIE decreasing when a more electron-withdrawing para-substituent is present.
  • The nucleophile carbon k(11)/k(14) KIEs for these reactions, however, do not change significantly with substituent and, therefore, do not appear to be useful for determining how the NC-C(alpha) transition-state bond changes with substituent.
  • The theoretical calculations indicate that the NC-C(alpha) bond also shortens as a more electron-withdrawing substituent is placed on the benzene ring of the substrate but that the changes in the NC-C(alpha) transition-state bond with substituent are very small and may not be measurable.
  • The implication of using both chlorine leaving group and nucleophile carbon KIEs to determine the substituent effect on transition-state structure is discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Carbon Isotopes / chemistry. Chlorine / chemistry

  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 17663535.001).
  • [ISSN] 1089-5639
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of physical chemistry. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Phys Chem A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carbon Isotopes; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine
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35. ||........ 20%  Im Y, Jang M, Delcomyn CA, Henley MV, Hearn JD: The effects of active chlorine on photooxidation of 2-methyl-2-butene. Sci Total Environ; 2011 Jun 1;409(13):2652-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The effects of active chlorine on photooxidation of 2-methyl-2-butene.
  • Active chlorine comprising hypochlorite (OCl⁻), hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and chlorine (Cl₂) is the active constituent in bleach formulations for a variety of industrial and consumer applications.
  • However, the strong oxidative reactivity of active chlorine can cause adverse effects on both human health and the environment.
  • In this study, aerosolized Oxone® [2KHSO₅, KHSO₄, K₂SO₄] with saline solution has been utilized to produce active chlorine (HOCl and Cl₂).
  • To investigate the impact of active chlorine on volatile organic compound (VOC) oxidation, 2-methyl-2-butene (MB) was photoirradiated in the presence of active chlorine using a 2-m³ Teflon film indoor chamber.
  • The resulting carbonyl products produced from photooxidation of MB were derivatized with O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl) hydroxyamine hydrochloride (PFBHA) and analyzed using gas chromatograph-ion trap mass spectrometer (GC/ITMS).
  • The photooxidation of MB in the presence of active chlorine was simulated with an explicit kinetic model using a chemical solver (Morpho) which included both Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) and Cl radical reactions.
  • The reaction rate constants of a Cl radical with MB and its oxidized products were estimated using a Structure-Reactivity Relationship method.
  • Under dark conditions no effect of active chlorine on MB oxidation was apparent, whereas under simulated daylight conditions (UV irradiation) rapid MB oxidation was observed due to photo-dissociation of active chlorine.
  • Ozone formation was enhanced when MB was oxidized in the presence of irradiated active chlorine and NO(x).
  • [MeSH-major] Air Pollutants / chemistry. Chlorine / chemistry. Epoxy Compounds / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Kinetics. Models, Chemical. Oxidants, Photochemical. Oxidation-Reduction. Ozone / chemistry. Photochemical Processes. Volatile Organic Compounds / analysis. Volatile Organic Compounds / chemistry

  • HSDB. structure - OZONE.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • [Copyright] Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • (PMID = 21524786.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1026
  • [Journal-full-title] The Science of the total environment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sci. Total Environ.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Air Pollutants; 0 / Epoxy Compounds; 0 / Oxidants, Photochemical; 0 / Volatile Organic Compounds; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; 5076-19-7 / beta-isoamylene oxide; 66H7ZZK23N / Ozone
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36. ||........ 20%  Wang L, Arey J, Atkinson R: Reactions of chlorine atoms with a series of aromatic hydrocarbons. Environ Sci Technol; 2005 Jul 15;39(14):5302-10
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  • [Title] Reactions of chlorine atoms with a series of aromatic hydrocarbons.
  • Reactions of PAHs with Cl atoms may occur in the marine boundary layer and in coastal regions.
  • To assess the importance of these reactions and to investigate whether any unique chlorine-containing products are formed from these reactions, we have measured the rate constants for the gas-phase reactions of Cl atoms with toluene-d8, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (1,3,5-TMB), naphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene-d10 (1-MN-d10), 1- and 2-methylnaphthalene (1- and 2-MN), 1- and 2-ethylnaphthalene (1- and 2-EN), and the dimethylnaphthalenes (DMNs) at 296 +/- 2 K.
  • A relative rate technique was used, and, using our measured rate constant forthe reaction of Cl atoms with 1,3,5-TMB of 2.42 x 10(-10) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1), the rate constants (in units of 10(-10) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1)) are as follows: naphthalene, < or = 0.0091 +/- 0.0003; 1-MN, 1.21 +/- 0.16; 2-MN, 1.05 +/- 0.13; 1-EN, 2.12 +/- 0.35; 2-EN, 1.38 +/- 0.27; 1,2-DMN, 3.61 +/- 0.68; 1,3-DMN, 2.90 +/- 0.22; 1,4-DMN, 2.93 +/- 0.30; 1,5-DMN, 2.31 +/- 0.19; 1,6-DMN, 2.15 +/- 0.20; 1,7-DMN, 3.05 +/- 0.34; 1,8-DMN, 3.07 +/- 0.44; 2,3-DMN, 2.93 +/- 0.49; 2,6-DMN, 2.34 +/- 0.18; and 2,7-DMN, 2.00 +/- 0.22, where the indicated errors are two standard deviations and do not include the uncertainty in the rate constant for 1,3,5-TMB.
  • These products confirm that H-atom abstraction is the dominant, if not sole, reaction pathway for the alkylbenzenes and alkylnaphthalenes, consistent with the 100-fold lower rate constant measured for naphthalene compared to the alkylnaphthalenes and with the measured deuterium isotope effects.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine / chemistry. Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Atmosphere. Chlorine Compounds. Seawater / chemistry. Volatilization

  • HSDB. structure - POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 16082960.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-936X
  • [Journal-full-title] Environmental science & technology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Environ. Sci. Technol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chlorine Compounds; 0 / Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine
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37. ||........ 20%  Niederer C, Goss KU: Effect of ortho-chlorine substitution on the partition behavior of chlorophenols. Chemosphere; 2008 Mar;71(4):697-702
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  • [Title] Effect of ortho-chlorine substitution on the partition behavior of chlorophenols.
  • Chlorophenol isomers are known to possess substantially different octanol/water and octane/water partition constants depending on whether the chlorine substituents are in the ortho or meta/para position.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine / chemistry. Chlorophenols / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Adsorption. Air. Chemical Fractionation. Models, Chemical. Octanols / chemistry. Software. Soil. Water / chemistry

  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 18068754.001).
  • [ISSN] 0045-6535
  • [Journal-full-title] Chemosphere
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chemosphere
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chlorophenols; 0 / Octanols; 0 / Soil; 059QF0KO0R / Water; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine
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38. ||........ 20%  Dwivedi Y, Thakur SN, Rai SB: Overtone spectroscopy of chlorine substituted benzene derivatives. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc; 2009 Jan;71(5):1952-8
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  • [Title] Overtone spectroscopy of chlorine substituted benzene derivatives.
  • Effect of hydrogen atom substitution by chlorine atom has been studied by measuring changes in the vibrational frequency of the C-H stretching mode and the C-H bond length.
  • Frequency changes have been well correlated with the change in charge density on carbon as well as chlorine atoms.
  • [MeSH-major] Benzene Derivatives / chemistry. Carbon / chemistry. Chlorine / chemistry. Hydrogen / chemistry

  • HSDB. structure - HYDROGEN.
  • HSDB. structure - CARBON BLACK.
  • HSDB. structure - CARBON.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 18760956.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-1425
  • [Journal-full-title] Spectrochimica acta. Part A, Molecular and biomolecular spectroscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzene Derivatives; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; 7440-44-0 / Carbon; 7YNJ3PO35Z / Hydrogen
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39. ||........ 20%  Livingston RA, Al-Sheikhly M, Mohamed AB: Numerical simulation of the PGNA signal from chlorine diffusion gradients in concrete. Appl Radiat Isot; 2010 Apr-May;68(4-5):679-82
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  • [Title] Numerical simulation of the PGNA signal from chlorine diffusion gradients in concrete.
  • Since the chlorides often come from de-icing salts applied to the concrete surface, the Cl concentration has a non-linear depth profile which is typically modeled by the erfc function.
  • The signals from this distribution have been simulated for several significant Cl capture peaks to estimate the erfc function parameters.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine / analysis. Chlorine / chemistry. Construction Materials / analysis. Models, Chemical. Neutron Activation Analysis / methods

  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20149672.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-9800
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied radiation and isotopes : including data, instrumentation and methods for use in agriculture, industry and medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl Radiat Isot
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine
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40. ||........ 20%  Tsai YP: Interaction of chlorine concentration and shear stress on chlorine consumption, biofilm growth rate and particle number. Bioresour Technol; 2006 Oct;97(15):1912-9
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  • [Title] Interaction of chlorine concentration and shear stress on chlorine consumption, biofilm growth rate and particle number.
  • Eleven test runs (including two replicates) were carried out to explore the interaction of shear stress and chlorine concentration on the growth of heterotrophic microorganisms.
  • Experimental results revealed that influent chlorine concentration and shear stress had no interaction on biofilm formation.
  • Biofilm bacterial numbers decreased with the increase of influent chlorine concentration.
  • A strong interaction on bacterial quality or chlorine consumption rate of bulk water existed.
  • However, an inverse relation occurred at higher chlorine conditions.
  • No significant interaction of chlorine concentration and shear stress existed for particle numbers with 2-5, 5-15, 50-100 and >100 microm diameters.
  • [MeSH-major] Biofilms / growth & development. Chlorine / metabolism. Water Microbiology

  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 16202580.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-8524
  • [Journal-full-title] Bioresource technology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bioresour. Technol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine
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41. ||........ 20%  Göbel M, Tchitchanov BH, Murray JS, Politzer P, Klapötke TM: Chlorotrinitromethane and its exceptionally short carbon-chlorine bond. Nat Chem; 2009 Jun;1(3):229-35
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  • [Title] Chlorotrinitromethane and its exceptionally short carbon-chlorine bond.
  • We found several intriguing geometrical features in terms of intra- and intermolecular interactions, as well as an exceptionally short carbon-chlorine bond (1.694(1) Å).
  • [MeSH-major] Carbon / chemistry. Chlorine / chemistry. Methyl Chloride / analogs & derivatives. Nitroparaffins / chemistry

  • HSDB. structure - CARBON BLACK.
  • HSDB. structure - METHYL CHLORIDE.
  • HSDB. structure - CARBON.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 21378853.001).
  • [ISSN] 1755-4349
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Chem
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nitroparaffins; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; 7440-44-0 / Carbon; A6R43525YO / Methyl Chloride
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42. ||........ 20%  Drenzek NJ, Eglinton TI, Wirsen CO, Sturchio NC, Heraty LJ, Sowers KR, Wu Q, May HD, Reddy CM: Invariant chlorine isotopic signatures during microbial PCB reductive dechlorination. Environ Pollut; 2004;128(3):445-8
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  • [Title] Invariant chlorine isotopic signatures during microbial PCB reductive dechlorination.
  • In order to develop more robust insight into the natural attenuation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), the chlorine isotopic composition of residual 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorobiphenyl (2,3,4,5-CB) was monitored as it underwent microbial reductive dechlorination to 2,3,5-trichlorobiphenyl (2,3,5-CB) in laboratory cultures.
  • [MeSH-major] Bacteria / metabolism. Chlorine / analysis. Environmental Pollutants / metabolism. Polychlorinated Biphenyls / metabolism

  • HSDB. structure - POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 14720486.001).
  • [ISSN] 0269-7491
  • [Journal-full-title] Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Environ. Pollut.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Environmental Pollutants; 0 / Isotopes; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; DFC2HB4I0K / Polychlorinated Biphenyls
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43. ||........ 19%  Wang LS, Hu HY, Koichi F: [Characterization of the change in DOM during wastewater chlorine and chlorine dioxide disinfections by 3DEEM]. Huan Jing Ke Xue; 2007 Jul;28(7):1524-8
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  • [Title] [Characterization of the change in DOM during wastewater chlorine and chlorine dioxide disinfections by 3DEEM].
  • The change of DOM (dissolve organic matter) during wastewater chlorine and chlorine dioxide disinfections was characterized by 3DEEM (three-dimensional excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy) method.
  • After chlorine and chlorine dioxide disinfections, the excitation or emission wavelength of EEM (excitation emission matrix) peaks for aromatic proteins and soluble microbial products shifted to longer wavelength by several nanometers, which was probably caused by the decomposition of aromatic structure; while the excitation or emission wavelength of EEM peaks for humus shifted to shorter wavelength by several to more than twenty nanometers, which was different from surface waters, and this phenomenon was considered to be caused by their different resources.
  • Similar to the change in genotoxicity, ammonia nitrogen significantly influenced the change in EEM during chlorine disinfection, but not during chlorine dioxide disinfection.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine / chemistry. Chlorine Compounds / chemistry. Organic Chemicals / analysis. Oxides / chemistry. Spectrometry, Fluorescence / methods. Waste Disposal, Fluid / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Disinfectants / chemistry. Solubility. Water Pollutants, Chemical / analysis

  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE DIOXIDE.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 17891963.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-3301
  • [Journal-full-title] Huan jing ke xue= Huanjing kexue / [bian ji, Zhongguo ke xue yuan huan jing ke xue wei yuan hui "Huan jing ke xue" bian ji wei yuan hui.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Huan Jing Ke Xue
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chlorine Compounds; 0 / Disinfectants; 0 / Organic Chemicals; 0 / Oxides; 0 / Water Pollutants, Chemical; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; 8061YMS4RM / chlorine dioxide
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44. ||........ 19%  Ding C, Wang SH, Yang CS: [Environmental behavior in wetland soil of organic chlorine from pulp bleaching wastewater]. Huan Jing Ke Xue; 2006 Jul;27(7):1383-7
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  • [Title] [Environmental behavior in wetland soil of organic chlorine from pulp bleaching wastewater].
  • The adsorption equilibrium and leaching characteristics of organic chlorine on soils were studied by mean of soil column method using bleaching water in laboratory condition.
  • Soil samples were also collected from the wetland that irrigated with pulp wastewater from one to three years, and analyzed for the distributing characteristics of organic chlorine in soils.
  • The results showed that measured equilibrium isotherms for absorbable organic chlorine (AOCl) in the soils were of Freundlich type with the adsorption constant 7.3410 in the soils without irrigated and 4.9501 irrigated for 2 years.
  • The average contents of extractable organic chlorine (EOCl) were 4.48 microg/g, 10.35 microg/g and 10.07 microg/g in the topsoil irrigated for la, 2a and 3a respectively, which had increased distinctly compared with the background value.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine / analysis. Soil Pollutants / analysis. Waste Disposal, Fluid / methods. Wetlands
  • [MeSH-minor] Adsorption. Industrial Waste. Organic Chemicals / analysis. Organic Chemicals / chemistry

  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 16881314.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-3301
  • [Journal-full-title] Huan jing ke xue= Huanjing kexue / [bian ji, Zhongguo ke xue yuan huan jing ke xue wei yuan hui "Huan jing ke xue" bian ji wei yuan hui.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Huan Jing Ke Xue
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Industrial Waste; 0 / Organic Chemicals; 0 / Soil Pollutants; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine
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45. ||........ 19%  Qin Q, Liu K, Fu D, Gao H: Effect of chlorine content of chlorophenols on their adsorption by mesoporous SBA-15. J Environ Sci (China); 2012;24(8):1411-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effect of chlorine content of chlorophenols on their adsorption by mesoporous SBA-15.
  • Studies on the effect of the chlorine content of chlorophenols (CPs) on their adsorption from aqueous solution by mesoporous SBA-15 are important in understanding the mechanisms of CP adsorption.
  • In this study, three CPs with different degrees of chlorine content (i.e., 2-chlorophenol, 2,6-dichlorophenol and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol) were investigated.
  • The effects of parameters such as temperature and solution pH were studied.
  • The results showed that CP adsorption by SBA-15 increased with increasing number of chlorine substituents and depended strongly on the temperature and solution pH.
  • By comparison of the adsorption coefficient of CPs with varying physical-chemical properties (size, hydrophobicity and electron density), we propose that hydrophobic interactions between CPs and the SBA-15 surface, as well as electron donor-acceptor (EDA) complexes between oxygen of the siloxane surface of SBA-15 (e(-)-donor) and the pi-system of the CPs (e(-)-acceptor), were dominant adsorption mechanisms.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine / chemistry. Chlorophenols / chemistry. Silicon Dioxide / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Adsorption. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Temperature. Thermodynamics

  • HSDB. structure - SILICON DIOXIDE.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 23513682.001).
  • [ISSN] 1001-0742
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of environmental sciences (China)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Environ Sci (China)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chlorophenols; 0 / SBA-15; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; 7631-86-9 / Silicon Dioxide
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46. ||........ 19%  Holmstrand H, Mandalakis M, Zencak Z, Gustafsson O, Andersson P: Chlorine isotope fractionation of a semi-volatile organochlorine compound during preparative megabore-column capillary gas chromatography. J Chromatogr A; 2006 Jan 20;1103(1):133-8
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  • [Title] Chlorine isotope fractionation of a semi-volatile organochlorine compound during preparative megabore-column capillary gas chromatography.
  • Chlorine isotope fractionation during preparative capillary gas chromatography (pcGC) was investigated using 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) as a model compound for semi-volatile organochlorine (OCl) molecules.
  • Chlorine isotope analysis by thermal ionization mass spectrometry revealed no significant alteration of the chlorine isotope composition when the whole peaks were collected in pcGC (delta37Cl -3.2 per thousand versus -3.6 per thousand for the unprocessed DDT, +/-0.5 per thousand SD).
  • Isolation of individual OCls by pcGC enables accurate off-line chlorine isotope analysis, and thus facilitates the investigation of naturally occurring OCls.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine / chemistry. Chromatography, Gas / methods. DDT / chemistry

  • HSDB. structure - DDT.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 16309691.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9673
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of chromatography. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chromatogr A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Isotopes; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; CIW5S16655 / DDT
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47. ||........ 19%  Riedel TP, Bertram TH, Crisp TA, Williams EJ, Lerner BM, Vlasenko A, Li SM, Gilman J, de Gouw J, Bon DM, Wagner NL, Brown SS, Thornton JA: Nitryl chloride and molecular chlorine in the coastal marine boundary layer. Environ Sci Technol; 2012 Oct 2;46(19):10463-70
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  • [Title] Nitryl chloride and molecular chlorine in the coastal marine boundary layer.
  • The magnitude and sources of chlorine atoms in marine air remain highly uncertain but have potentially important consequences for air quality in polluted coastal regions.
  • We made continuous measurements of ambient ClNO(2) and Cl(2) concentrations from May 15 to June 8 aboard the Research Vessel Atlantis during the CalNex 2010 field study.
  • In the Los Angeles region, ClNO(2) was more ubiquitous than Cl(2) during most nights of the study period.
  • ClNO(2) and Cl(2) ranged from detection limits at midday to campaign maximum values at night reaching 2100 and 200 pptv, respectively.
  • Cl(2) at times appeared well correlated with ClNO(2), but at other times, there was little to no correlation implying distinct and varying sources.
  • Well-confined Cl(2) plumes were observed, largely independent of ClNO(2), providing support for localized industrial emissions of reactive chlorine.
  • Observations of ClNO(2), Cl(2), and HCl are used to constrain a simple box model that predicts their relative importance as chlorine atom sources in the polluted marine boundary layer.
  • In contrast to the emphasis in previous studies, ClNO(2) and HCl are dominant primary chlorine atom sources for the Los Angeles basin.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine / analysis. Nitrites / analysis

  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 22443276.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-5851
  • [Journal-full-title] Environmental science & technology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Environ. Sci. Technol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Air Pollutants; 0 / Nitrites; 13444-90-1 / nitryl chloride; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine
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48. ||........ 19%  Furlong MT, Wujcik CE, Ji C, Su Y: Identifying and overcoming bioanalytical challenges associated with chlorine-containing dehydrogenation metabolites. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom; 2010 Nov 15;24(21):3092-102
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  • [Title] Identifying and overcoming bioanalytical challenges associated with chlorine-containing dehydrogenation metabolites.
  • One scenario by which isobaric interference may occur is the metabolism of a chlorine- or bromine-containing small molecule to a metabolite with the concomitant loss of 2 Da.
  • Several alternate precursor ion and product ion combinations were evaluated and shown to minimize the quantitative impact of the interfering metabolites without having to rely on their stringent chromatographic resolution from the parent compound.
  • These results indicate that when quantifying chlorine- or bromine-containing small molecules from in vivo samples or in vitro metabolic incubations:.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine / chemistry. Chromatography, Liquid / methods. Drug Discovery / methods. Pharmacokinetics. Tandem Mass Spectrometry / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Bromine / chemistry. Female. Humans. Hydrogenation. Male. Molecular Weight. Plasma / chemistry. Rats. Urine / chemistry

  • HSDB. structure - BROMINE.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 20941755.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0231
  • [Journal-full-title] Rapid communications in mass spectrometry : RCM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; SBV4XY874G / Bromine
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49. ||........ 19%  Sun K, Wentworth WE, Stearns SD: Applications using the chlorine-selective pulsed discharge emission detector. J Chromatogr A; 2000 Mar 3;872(1-2):167-78
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  • [Title] Applications using the chlorine-selective pulsed discharge emission detector.
  • The use of the chlorine-selective pulsed discharge emission detector (Cl-PDED) for the GC analyses of EPA mixtures 502, 612, 624, organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls has been demonstrated.
  • The Cl-PDED is the most sensitive chlorine-selective detector with a minimum detectability of 50 fg Cl/s.
  • A constant response/pg Cl was observed for these mixtures regardless of the number of Cl atoms/molecule and structure of the compound to which the Cl atoms are attached.
  • The analysis of standard samples of polychlorinated biphenyls using the Cl-PDED have sensitivities comparable to those of the electron-capture detector; however, the predictable response/pg Cl from the Cl-PDED is preferred over the extremely variable response from the electron capture detector.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine / analysis. Chromatography, Gas / instrumentation. Insecticides / analysis. Polychlorinated Biphenyls / analysis

  • HSDB. structure - POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 10749495.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9673
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of chromatography. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chromatogr A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] NETHERLANDS
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Insecticides; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; DFC2HB4I0K / Polychlorinated Biphenyls
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50. ||........ 19%  Reddy CM, Drenzek NJ, Eglinton TI, Heraty LJ, Sturchio NC, Shiner VJ: Stable chlorine intramolecular kinetic isotope effects from the abiotic dehydrochlorination of DDT. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int; 2002;9(3):183-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Stable chlorine intramolecular kinetic isotope effects from the abiotic dehydrochlorination of DDT.
  • Compound-specific stable chlorine measurements of some contaminants have recently been shown to provide additional information and an increased understanding of their biogeochemistry.
  • OBJECTIVE: Here, the stable chlorine isotope ratios of the semi-volatile pesticide, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) were investigated.
  • Specifically, the intramolecular stable chlorine isotopic compositions of DDT and the kinetic isotope effect (KIE) for the abiotic dehydrochlorination of DDT to 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethene (DDE) were determined.
  • METHODS: Selective chemical oxidation of DDT to dichlorobenzophenone (DCBP) and analysis of each compound was used to calculate the stable chlorine isotope ratios of the alkyl and aromatic chlorines in DDT.
  • RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Significant intramolecular stable chlorine isotopic differences were observed in one sample of DDT where the alkyl and aromatic delta 37Cl values were -5.76 +/- 0.45 and -2.21 +/- 0.24%@1000, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Intramolecular differences in the stable chlorine isotope ratios were observed in DDT and this is the first such finding.
  • Dehydrochlorination of DDT yields a measurable and distinct intramolecular stable chlorine KIE.
  • Many other chlorinated semi-volatile and volatile organic contaminants are synthesized from multiple sources of chlorine, and we recommend that similar studies be performed on many such molecules in order to attain a clear understanding of their intramolecular chlorine isotopic differences.
  • For example, the isotopically depleted aqueous chloride produced by dehydrochlorination of DDT to DDE may be a useful tracer of these reactions in freshwater environments.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine / chemistry. DDT / chemistry. Insecticides / chemistry

  • HSDB. structure - DDT.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 12094531.001).
  • [ISSN] 0944-1344
  • [Journal-full-title] Environmental science and pollution research international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Insecticides; 0 / Isotopes; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; CIW5S16655 / DDT
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51. ||........ 19%  Ciuraru R, Gosselin S, Visez N, Petitprez D: Heterogeneous reactivity of chlorine atoms with ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate particles. Phys Chem Chem Phys; 2012 Apr 7;14(13):4527-37
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  • [Title] Heterogeneous reactivity of chlorine atoms with ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate particles.
  • In this laboratory study, model particles of ammonium sulfate (AS) and ammonium nitrate (AN) were exposed to chlorine atoms and uptake experiments were performed in a coated wall flow tube reactor coupled to a molecular beam mass spectrometer.
  • The observed uptake coefficients vary for (NH(4))(2)SO(4), ranging from γ(Cl)(AS)≈ 1 × 10(-3) for size-selected particles to γ(Cl)(AS)≈ 6 × 10(-2) for thin films prepared by spray.
  • An uptake coefficient of γ(Cl)(AN)≈ 2.5 × 10(-3) of Cl˙ on size-selected NH(4)NO(3) particles was measured.
  • A heterogeneous recombination of Cl atoms to from Cl(2) molecules was observed for the two surfaces.
  • Furthermore, an ageing process was observed for AS particles, this phenomenon leading to the formation of new chlorine species on the solid substrate.
  • [MeSH-major] Ammonium Sulfate / chemistry. Chlorine / chemistry. Nitrates / chemistry

  • HSDB. structure - AMMONIUM NITRATE.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
  • HSDB. structure - AMMONIUM SULFATE.
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  • (PMID = 22374517.001).
  • [ISSN] 1463-9084
  • [Journal-full-title] Physical chemistry chemical physics : PCCP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Phys Chem Chem Phys
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nitrates; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; SU46BAM238 / Ammonium Sulfate; T8YA51M7Y6 / ammonium nitrate
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52. ||........ 19%  Kurkela P, Viiala A, Kääntee E: Chlorine residues in farm milk following the use of two disinfectants of different solubilities. Nord Vet Med; 1977 Sep;29(9):392-6
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  • [Title] Chlorine residues in farm milk following the use of two disinfectants of different solubilities.
  • The incidence of chlorine residues in milk derived from two kinds of chlorine-based disinfectants of differing solubilities was investigated by Wode's test in a total of 420 samples from 30 dairy farms using milk tanks in December 1976 and January 1977.
  • The less soluble of the two disinfectants caused a positive reaction for free chlorine in 4.29 per cent and a weakly positive reaction in 20 per cent of the 210 samples tested.
  • The results showed that chlorine residues in milk cause small inhibition zones.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine. Disinfectants. Food Contamination. Milk

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Foodborne Illness.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 905122.001).
  • [ISSN] 0029-1579
  • [Journal-full-title] Nordisk veterinaermedicin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nord Vet Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] DENMARK
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Disinfectants; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine
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53. ||........ 19%  Loll PJ: De novo structure determination of vancomycin aglycon using the anomalous scattering of chlorine. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr; 2001 Jul;57(Pt 7):977-80
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  • [Title] De novo structure determination of vancomycin aglycon using the anomalous scattering of chlorine.
  • The crystal structure of vancomycin aglycon has been determined by exploiting the anomalous scattering of Cl atoms present within the molecule.
  • Real-space-reciprocal-space cycling with Shake-and-Bake successfully located the chlorine positions from the Bijvoet differences, even though the anomalous difference Patterson map proved to be uninterpretable.
  • The chlorine anomalous differences lacked sufficient phasing power to produce interpretable electron-density maps.
  • However, when combined with high-resolution native data, the chlorine positions were sufficient to determine the structure using either Shake-and-Bake or a tangent-formula expansion.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Bacterial Agents / chemistry. Chlorine / chemistry. Vancomycin / chemistry

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Antibiotics.
  • HSDB. structure - VANCOMYCIN.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 11418765.001).
  • [ISSN] 0907-4449
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta crystallographica. Section D, Biological crystallography
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; 6Q205EH1VU / Vancomycin
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54. ||........ 19%  Jeannottat S, Hunkeler D: Chlorine and carbon isotopes fractionation during volatilization and diffusive transport of trichloroethene in the unsaturated zone. Environ Sci Technol; 2012 Mar 20;46(6):3169-76
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Chlorine and carbon isotopes fractionation during volatilization and diffusive transport of trichloroethene in the unsaturated zone.
  • To apply compound-specific isotope methods to the evaluation of the origin and fate of organic contaminants in the unsaturated subsurface, the effect of physicochemical processes on isotope ratios needs to be known.
  • The main objective of this study is to quantify chlorine and carbon isotope fractionation during NAPL-vapor equilibration, air-water partitioning, and diffusion of trichloroethene (TCE) and combinations of these effects during vaporization in porous media.
  • During NAPL-vapor equilibration, carbon, and chlorine isotope ratios evolve in opposite directions although both elements are present in the same bond, with a normal isotope effect for chlorine (ε(Cl) = -0.39 ± 0.03‰) and an inverse effect for carbon (ε(C) = +0.75 ± 0.04‰).
  • During diffusion-controlled vaporization in a sand column, no significant carbon isotope fractionation is observed (ε(C) = +0.10 ± 0.05‰), whereas fairly strong chlorine isotope fractionation occurs (ε(Cl) = -1.39 ± 0.06‰) considering the molecular weight of TCE.
  • In case of carbon, the inverse isotope fractionation associated with NAPL-vapor equilibration and normal diffusion isotope fractionation cancel, whereas for chlorine both processes are accompanied by normal isotope fractionation and hence they cumulate.
  • A source of contamination that aged might thus show a shift toward heavier chlorine isotope ratios.
  • [MeSH-major] Carbon Isotopes / chemistry. Chlorine / chemistry. Trichloroethylene / chemistry. Water Pollutants, Chemical / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Groundwater / chemistry. Isotopes / chemistry. Volatilization

  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
  • HSDB. structure - TRICHLOROETHYLENE.
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  • (PMID = 22313159.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-5851
  • [Journal-full-title] Environmental science & technology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Environ. Sci. Technol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carbon Isotopes; 0 / Isotopes; 0 / Water Pollutants, Chemical; 290YE8AR51 / Trichloroethylene; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine
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55. ||........ 19%  Kuska MS, Majdi Yazdi M, Witham AA, Dahlmann HA, Sturla SJ, Wetmore SD, Manderville RA: Influence of chlorine substitution on the hydrolytic stability of biaryl ether nucleoside adducts produced by phenolic toxins. J Org Chem; 2013 Jul 19;78(14):7176-85
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  • [Title] Influence of chlorine substitution on the hydrolytic stability of biaryl ether nucleoside adducts produced by phenolic toxins.
  • Strikingly, the reaction rate of hydrolysis at pH 1 decreases as electron-withdrawing chlorine (Cl) substituents are added to the phenoxyl ring.
  • The Hammett plot for hydrolysis at pH 1 shows a linear negative slope with ρX = -0.65, implying that increased Cl-substitution diminishes the rate of hydrolysis by lowering N(7) basicity.
  • Spectrophotometric titration provided an N(7)H(+) pKa value of 1.1 for the unsubstituted adduct 8-phenoxy-dG (Ph-O-dG).
  • Model pyridine compounds suggest N(7)H(+) pKa values of 0.92 and 0.37 for 4-Cl-Ph-O-dG and 2,6-dichloro-Ph-O-dG (DCP-O-dG), respectively.
  • The inclusion of our data now establishes that the order of hydrolytic reactivity at neutral pH for bulky 8-dG adducts is N-linked > C-linked > O-linked, which correlates with their relative ease of N(7)-protonation.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine / chemistry. Deoxyguanosine / chemical synthesis. Ethers / chemical synthesis. Phenol / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Acids / chemistry. Catalysis. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Hydrolysis. Kinetics. Quantum Theory

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  • (PMID = 23819526.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-6904
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of organic chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Org. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acids; 0 / Ethers; 339NCG44TV / Phenol; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; G9481N71RO / Deoxyguanosine
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56. ||........ 19%  Rodríguez E, Onstad GD, Kull TP, Metcalf JS, Acero JL, von Gunten U: Oxidative elimination of cyanotoxins: comparison of ozone, chlorine, chlorine dioxide and permanganate. Water Res; 2007 Aug;41(15):3381-93
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Oxidative elimination of cyanotoxins: comparison of ozone, chlorine, chlorine dioxide and permanganate.
  • A kinetic database has been compiled for the oxidative treatment of three cyanotoxins: microcystin-LR (MC-LR), cylindrospermopsin (CYN), and anatoxin-a (ANTX) with ozone, chlorine, chlorine dioxide and permanganate.
  • This kinetic database contains rate constants not previously reported and determined in the present work (e.g. for permanganate oxidation of ANTX and chlorine dioxide oxidation of CYN and ANTX), together with previously published rate constants for the remaining oxidation processes.
  • Second-order rate constants measured in pure aqueous solutions of these toxins could be used in a kinetic model to predict the toxin oxidation efficiency of ozone, chlorine, chlorine dioxide and permanganate when applied to natural waters.
  • Overall, permanganate can effectively oxidize ANTX and MC-LR, while chlorine will oxidize CYN and MC-LR and ozone is capable of oxidizing all three toxins with the highest rate.
  • The formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) in the treated water may be a restriction to the application of sufficiently high-chlorine doses.
  • [MeSH-major] Microcystins / chemistry. Oxidants / chemistry. Tropanes / chemistry. Uracil / analogs & derivatives. Water Pollutants, Chemical / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Bacterial Toxins / chemistry. Chlorine / chemistry. Chlorine Compounds / chemistry. Fresh Water. Manganese Compounds / chemistry. Marine Toxins / chemistry. Oxidation-Reduction. Oxides / chemistry. Ozone / chemistry. Water Purification / methods

  • HSDB. structure - MANGANESE COMPOUNDS.
  • HSDB. structure - OZONE.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE DIOXIDE.
  • HSDB. structure - Cylindrospermopsin.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 17583762.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-1354
  • [Journal-full-title] Water research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Water Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bacterial Toxins; 0 / Chlorine Compounds; 0 / Manganese Compounds; 0 / Marine Toxins; 0 / Microcystins; 0 / Oxidants; 0 / Oxides; 0 / Tropanes; 0 / Water Pollutants, Chemical; 101043-37-2 / cyanoginosin LR; 14333-13-2 / permanganic acid; 143545-90-8 / cylindrospermopsin; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; 56HH86ZVCT / Uracil; 66H7ZZK23N / Ozone; 80023A73NK / anatoxin a; 8061YMS4RM / chlorine dioxide
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57. ||........ 19%  Zhang Q, Pehkonen SO: Oxidation of diazinon by aqueous chlorine: kinetics, mechanisms, and product studies. J Agric Food Chem; 1999 Apr;47(4):1760-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Oxidation of diazinon by aqueous chlorine: kinetics, mechanisms, and product studies.
  • The oxidation kinetics and mechanisms of diazinon, an organophosphorus pesticide, by aqueous chlorine were studied under different conditions.
  • The oxidation is of first order with respect to both diazinon and chlorine.
  • The oxidation rate is found to increase with decreasing pH.
  • The second-order rate constants at pH 9.
  • Based on the rate constants at different temperatures, the activation energy is calculated to be 30 kJ/mol at pH 10.0 with a chlorine-to-diazinon ratio of 11:1, 33 kJ/mol at pH 11.0 with a 11:1 ratio, and 36 kJ/mol at pH 11.0 with a 5:1 ratio, respectively.
  • Ion chromatography analysis shows an increase of sulfate concentration as the reaction proceeds, indicating that sulfur is being oxidized to sulfate.
  • This study indicates that oxidation by aqueous chlorine can significantly affect the fate of diazinon in the environment.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine. Diazinon / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Insecticides / chemistry. Kinetics. Molecular Structure. Oxidation-Reduction. Thermodynamics

  • HSDB. structure - DIAZINON.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 10564051.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-8561
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of agricultural and food chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Agric. Food Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Insecticides; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; YUS1M1Q929 / Diazinon
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58. ||........ 19%  Rossman LA: The effect of advanced treatment on chlorine decay in metallic pipes. Water Res; 2006 Jul;40(13):2493-502
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  • [Title] The effect of advanced treatment on chlorine decay in metallic pipes.
  • Experiments were run to measure what effect advanced treatment might have on the kinetics of chlorine and chloramine decay in metallic pipes that comprise many drinking water distribution systems.
  • Results showed that overall chlorine decay in the simulator was consistently dominated by wall reactions whose first-order rate constants were an order of magnitude higher than those for the bulk water.
  • With free chlorine, the wall rate constants for ozonated and GAC-treated water were about twice those of conventional or RO-treated water.
  • Tests run with chloraminated water showed no statistically significant effect of treatment type and had wall rate constants that were only 40 to 70% as high as those using free chlorine.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine / chemistry. Corrosion. Water Purification / methods

  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
  • ExactAntigen/Labome. author profiles.
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  • (PMID = 16806395.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-1354
  • [Journal-full-title] Water research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Water Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Disinfectants; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine
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59. ||........ 19%  Rao B, Estrada N, McGee S, Mangold J, Gu B, Jackson WA: Perchlorate production by photodecomposition of aqueous chlorine solutions. Environ Sci Technol; 2012 Nov 6;46(21):11635-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Perchlorate production by photodecomposition of aqueous chlorine solutions.
  • Aqueous chlorine solutions (defined as chlorine solutions (Cl(2,T)) containing solely or a combination of molecular chlorine (Cl(2)), hypochlorous acid (HOCl), and hypochlorite (OCl(-))) are known to produce toxic inorganic disinfection byproduct (e.g., chlorate and chlorite) through photoactivated transformations.
  • The evaluation of this potential ClO(4)(-) source is important given the widespread use of aqueous chlorine as a disinfectant.
  • In this study, we perform detailed rate analysis of ClO(4)(-) generation from aqueous chlorine under varying environmental conditions including ultraviolet (UV) light sources, intensity, solution pH, and Cl(2,T) concentrations.
  • Our results show that ClO(4)(-) is produced upon UV exposure of aqueous chlorine solutions with yields ranging from 0.09 × 10(-3) to 9.2 × 10(-3)% for all experimental conditions.
  • The amount of ClO(4)(-) produced depends on the starting concentrations of Cl(2,T) and ClO(3)(-), UV source wavelength, and solution pH, but it is independent of light intensity.
  • We hypothesize a mechanistic pathway derived from known reactions of Cl(2,T) photodecomposition that involves the reaction of Cl radicals with ClO(3)(-) to produce ClO(4)(-) with calculated rate coefficient (k(ClO4-)) of (4-40) × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) and (3-250) × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) for UV-B/C and UV-A, respectively.
  • Based on our results, phototransformation of aqueous chlorine solutions at concentrations relevant to drinking water treatment would result in ClO(4)(-) concentrations (~0.1 μg L(-1)) much below the proposed drinking water limits.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine / chemistry. Disinfectants / chemistry. Perchlorates / chemistry. Ultraviolet Rays
  • [MeSH-minor] Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Kinetics. Models, Chemical. Photolysis. Solutions

  • HSDB. structure - PERCHLORIC ACID.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 22962844.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-5851
  • [Journal-full-title] Environmental science & technology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Environ. Sci. Technol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Disinfectants; 0 / Perchlorates; 0 / Solutions; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; VLA4NZX2P4 / perchlorate
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60. ||........ 19%  Ohno K, Minami T, Matsui Y, Magara Y: Effects of chlorine on organophosphorus pesticides adsorbed on activated carbon: desorption and oxon formation. Water Res; 2008 Mar;42(6-7):1753-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effects of chlorine on organophosphorus pesticides adsorbed on activated carbon: desorption and oxon formation.
  • Following adsorption of each pesticide on 10mg/L of PAC in water, chlorine was added.
  • After 30min of chlorination, the corresponding oxons were detected in the water, but the parent compounds were not detected.
  • Molar ratios of the oxon concentration in solution after 30min of chlorine addition to the initial pesticide concentration before the adsorption process were 4.1% and 7.9% for diazinon, 3.9% and 5.8% for isoxathion, 1.2% and 1.7% for malathion, and 1.4% and 1.4% for tolchlofos-methyl, in the case of 2 and 5mg/L of chlorine addition.
  • Results from additional experiments suggest the following sequence of events: (i) adsorbed pesticides are oxidized by chlorine on the surface of the PAC and transformed into corresponding oxons;.
  • [MeSH-major] Carbon / chemistry. Chlorine / chemistry. Organophosphorus Compounds / chemistry. Pesticides / chemistry

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Pesticides.
  • HSDB. structure - CARBON BLACK.
  • HSDB. structure - CARBON.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
  • ExactAntigen/Labome. author profiles.
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  • (PMID = 18048077.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-1354
  • [Journal-full-title] Water research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Water Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organophosphorus Compounds; 0 / Pesticides; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; 7440-44-0 / Carbon
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61. ||........ 19%  Sen S, Sharma M, Kumar V, Muthe KP, Satyam PV, Bhatta UM, Roy M, Gaur NK, Gupta SK, Yakhmi JV: Chlorine gas sensors using one-dimensional tellurium nanostructures. Talanta; 2009 Mar 15;77(5):1567-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Chlorine gas sensors using one-dimensional tellurium nanostructures.
  • Tellurium nanotubes have been grown by physical vapor deposition under inert environment at atmospheric pressure as well as under vacuum conditions.
  • Nanotubes prepared at atmospheric pressure (of argon) showed high sensitivity and better selectivity to chlorine gas.
  • Impedance spectroscopy studies showed that the response to chlorine is mainly contributed by grain boundaries and is therefore enhanced for nanotubes prepared under argon atmosphere.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine / analysis. Nanostructures / chemistry. Tellurium / chemistry

  • HSDB. structure - TELLURIUM, ELEMENTAL.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 19159765.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-3573
  • [Journal-full-title] Talanta
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Talanta
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gases; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; NQA0O090ZJ / Tellurium
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62. ||........ 18%  Zamyadi A, Fan Y, Daly RI, Prévost M: Chlorination of Microcystis aeruginosa: toxin release and oxidation, cellular chlorine demand and disinfection by-products formation. Water Res; 2013 Mar 1;47(3):1080-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Chlorination of Microcystis aeruginosa: toxin release and oxidation, cellular chlorine demand and disinfection by-products formation.
  • Chlorine exposure (CT) values of 296 and 100 mg min/L were required to obtain 76% cell lysis and oxidation of released cell-bound toxins at levels below the provisional World Health Organisation guideline value (1 μg/L MC-LR).
  • This work presents much needed unit M. aeruginosa cellular chlorine demand (5.6 ± 0.2 pgCl(2)/cell) which could be used to adjust the chlorination capacity to satisfy the total chlorine demand associated with the presence of cells.
  • Furthermore, a novel successive reaction kinetics model is developed using the kinetics of the chlorine reaction with cyanobacterial cells and cell-bound toxins.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine / metabolism. Disinfection / methods. Microcystis / metabolism

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  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 23245541.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-2448
  • [Journal-full-title] Water research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Water Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine
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63. ||........ 18%  Bae WK, Joo J, Padilha LA, Won J, Lee DC, Lin Q, Koh WK, Luo H, Klimov VI, Pietryga JM: Highly effective surface passivation of PbSe quantum dots through reaction with molecular chlorine. J Am Chem Soc; 2012 Dec 12;134(49):20160-8
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  • [Title] Highly effective surface passivation of PbSe quantum dots through reaction with molecular chlorine.
  • Here, we present a simple method to enhance the stability of PbSe NQDs against oxidation and to improve their optical properties through reaction with molecular chlorine.
  • The chlorine molecules preferentially etch out surface Se ions and react with Pb ions to form a thin (1-2 monolayers) PbCl(x) passivation layer which effectively prevents oxidation during long-term air exposure while passivating surface trap states to increase photoluminescence efficiency and decrease photocharging.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine / chemistry. Lead / chemistry. Quantum Dots. Selenium Compounds / chemistry

  • HSDB. structure - SELENIUM COMPOUNDS.
  • HSDB. structure - LEAD, ELEMENTAL.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 23131125.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-5126
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Chemical Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Chem. Soc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Selenium Compounds; 12069-00-0 / lead selenide; 2P299V784P / Lead; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine
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64. ||........ 18%  Calvo P, Crugeiras J, Ríos A: Kinetic and thermodynamic barriers to chlorine transfer between amines in aqueous solution. J Org Chem; 2009 Aug 7;74(15):5381-9
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  • [Title] Kinetic and thermodynamic barriers to chlorine transfer between amines in aqueous solution.
  • Third-order rate constants for the acid-catalyzed reversible reaction of N-chlorotaurine with benzylamine and dimethylamine were determined in water at 25 degrees C and I = 0.5 (NaClO4).
  • These isotope effects, together with the absence of detectable general acid catalysis for this reaction, provide evidence for a stepwise mechanism involving fast equilibrium protonation of N-chlorotaurine followed by rate-determining chlorine transfer from the protonated chloramine to benzylamine.
  • The observation of strong catalysis by general acids of the reaction of dimethylamine with N-chlorotaurine suggests a change to a concerted mechanism with proton and chlorine transfer occurring in a single step.
  • The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for the reaction between protonated chlorotaurine and benzylamine are used to estimate a Marcus intrinsic reaction barrier of deltaG(0)+/+ =4.1 kcal/mol for chlorine transfer between amines.
  • [MeSH-major] Benzylamines / chemistry. Chlorine / chemistry. Dimethylamines / chemistry. Thermodynamics
  • [MeSH-minor] Kinetics. Phase Transition. Solutions. Taurine / analogs & derivatives. Taurine / chemistry. Water / chemistry

  • HSDB. structure - BENZYLAMINE.
  • HSDB. structure - DIMETHYLAMINE.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 19555092.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-6904
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of organic chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Org. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzylamines; 0 / Dimethylamines; 0 / Solutions; 059QF0KO0R / Water; 1EQV5MLY3D / Taurine; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; 51036-13-6 / N-chlorotaurine; A1O31ROR09 / benzylamine; ARQ8157E0Q / dimethylamine
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65. ||........ 18%  Urbansky ET, Freeman DM, Rubio FJ: Ascorbic acid reduction of residual active chlorine in potable water prior to halocarboxylate determination. J Environ Monit; 2000 Jun;2(3):253-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ascorbic acid reduction of residual active chlorine in potable water prior to halocarboxylate determination.
  • In studies on the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs), it is necessary to scavenge residual active (oxidizing) chlorine in order to fix the chlorination byproducts (such as haloethanoates) at a point in time.
  • Thus, methods designed for compliance monitoring are not always directly applicable, but must be adapted.
  • This research describes an adaptation of EPA Method 552 in which ascorbic acid treatment is shown to be a satisfactory means for reducing residual oxidizing chlorine, i.e., HOCl, ClO-, and Cl2, prior to determining concentrations of halocarboxylates.
  • Ascorbic acid rapidly reduces oxidizing chlorine compounds, and it has the advantage of producing inorganic halides and dehydroascorbic acid as opposed to halogenated organic molecules as byproducts.
  • [MeSH-major] Ascorbic Acid / chemistry. Carboxylic Acids / analysis. Chlorine / analysis. Chlorine / chemistry. Environmental Monitoring / methods. Water Supply
  • [MeSH-minor] Halogens / chemistry. Oxidants / chemistry. Oxidation-Reduction

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Vitamin C.
  • HSDB. structure - SODIUM ASCORBATE.
  • HSDB. structure - ASCORBIC ACID.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 11256708.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-0325
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of environmental monitoring : JEM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Environ Monit
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carboxylic Acids; 0 / Halogens; 0 / Oxidants; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; PQ6CK8PD0R / Ascorbic Acid
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66. ||........ 18%  Chuang YH, Wang GS, Tung HH: Chlorine residuals and haloacetic acid reduction in rapid sand filtration. Chemosphere; 2011 Nov;85(7):1146-53
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  • [Title] Chlorine residuals and haloacetic acid reduction in rapid sand filtration.
  • High chlorine concentrations may inhibit biofilm development, especially for plants with pre-chlorination.
  • The objective of this study is to explore the correlation between biodegradation and chlorine concentration in rapid sand filters, especially for the water treatment plants that practise pre-chlorination.
  • Laboratory column studies and field investigations were conducted to explore the association between the biodegradation of HAAs and chlorine concentrations.
  • The results showed that chlorine residual was an important factor that alters bioactivity development.
  • A model based on filter influent and effluent chlorine was developed for determining threshold chlorine for biodegradation.
  • From the model, a temperature independent chlorine concentration threshold (Cl(threshold)) for biodegradation was estimated at 0.46-0.5mgL(-1).
  • Optimizing biodegradable disinfection by-product removal in conventional rapid sand filter could be achieved with minor variation and a lower-than-Cl(threshold) influent chlorine concentration.
  • [MeSH-major] Acetates / analysis. Chlorine / analysis. Filtration. Silicon Dioxide / chemistry. Water Purification / methods

  • HSDB. structure - SILICON DIOXIDE.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
  • SILVA. SILVA SSU Database .
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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21974919.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1298
  • [Journal-full-title] Chemosphere
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chemosphere
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acetates; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; 7631-86-9 / Silicon Dioxide
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67. ||........ 18%  Merel S, Clément M, Thomas O: State of the art on cyanotoxins in water and their behaviour towards chlorine. Toxicon; 2010 Apr 1;55(4):677-91
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  • [Title] State of the art on cyanotoxins in water and their behaviour towards chlorine.
  • Chlorination efficiency on cyanotoxins alteration depends on pH, chlorine dose and oxidant nature.
  • Microcystins and cylindrospermopsin are efficiently transformed by chlorine, with respectively 6 and 2 by-products identified.
  • Even though they have been less investigated, saxitoxins and nodularins are also altered by chlorine.
  • For these toxins, no by-products have been identified, but the chlorinated mixture does not show acute toxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Bacterial Toxins / analysis. Chlorine / chemistry. Cyanobacteria / chemistry. Disinfectants / chemistry

  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19874838.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-3150
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicon
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bacterial Toxins; 0 / Disinfectants; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine
  • [Number-of-references] 122
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68. ||........ 18%  Barbeau B, Desjardins R, Mysore C, Prévost M: Impacts of water quality on chlorine and chlorine dioxide efficacy in natural waters. Water Res; 2005 May;39(10):2024-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Impacts of water quality on chlorine and chlorine dioxide efficacy in natural waters.
  • Bacillus subtilis spores were spiked in these waters and disinfection assays were conducted at 22 degrees C using either free chlorine or chlorine dioxide.
  • The inactivation kinetics in natural and ultra-pure buffered waters were not statistically different (at p = 0.05) while using free chlorine, as long as disinfectant decay was taken into account.
  • Filtering natural waters through a 0.45 microm did not improve the sporicidal efficacy of chlorine.
  • For three out of the four waters tested, the efficacy of chlorine dioxide was greater in natural waters compared to that observed in ultra-pure buffered waters.
  • Such results are consistent with previous observations using ultra-pure waters supplemented with NOM-extract from the Suwannee River.
  • Similar to free chlorine results, the impact of filtration (0.45 microm) on the efficacy of chlorine dioxide was not statistically significant.
  • [MeSH-major] Bacillus subtilis / drug effects. Chlorine / pharmacology. Chlorine Compounds / pharmacology. Disinfection / methods. Oxides / pharmacology. Water / chemistry

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Germs and Hygiene.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE DIOXIDE.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 15922397.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-1354
  • [Journal-full-title] Water research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Water Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chlorine Compounds; 0 / Oxides; 059QF0KO0R / Water; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; 8061YMS4RM / chlorine dioxide
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69. ||........ 18%  Elsner M, Hunkeler D: Evaluating chlorine isotope effects from isotope ratios and mass spectra of polychlorinated molecules. Anal Chem; 2008 Jun 15;80(12):4731-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Evaluating chlorine isotope effects from isotope ratios and mass spectra of polychlorinated molecules.
  • Compound-specific chlorine isotope analysis receives much interest to assess the fate of chlorinated hydrocarbons in contaminated environments.
  • This paper provides a theoretical basis to calculate isotope ratios and quantify isotope fractionation from ion-current ratios of molecular- and fragment-ion multiplets.
  • Because both (35)Cl and (37)Cl are of high abundance, polychlorinated hydrocarbons consist of molecules containing different numbers of (37)Cl denoted as isotopologues.
  • This proportionality extents even to fragments formed in the ion source of a mass spectrometer such as C 2Cl 2 (double dechlorinated fragment of perchloroethylene, PCE).
  • If in the latter case isotope ratios are derived from dechlorinated fragments, e.g., C 2HCl 2, it is important that fragmentation in the ion source affect all molecular positions alike, as otherwise isotopic changes in reactive positions may be underrepresented.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine / chemistry. Chlorine Compounds / analysis. Chlorine Compounds / chemistry. Mass Spectrometry / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Ions / chemistry. Isotopes. Molecular Structure. Stereoisomerism

  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 18484745.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-6882
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chlorine Compounds; 0 / Ions; 0 / Isotopes; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine
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70. ||........ 18%  Al-Enezi G, Ali SH, Fawzy N: Solubility of sulfur dioxide in chlorine-treated wastewater. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng; 2005;40(3):657-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Solubility of sulfur dioxide in chlorine-treated wastewater.
  • The solubility of sulfur dioxide in chlorine-treated wastewater was investigated.
  • An experimental study was carried out to measure the solubility of sulfur dioxide in chlorine-treated wastewater over the temperature range of 10-40 degrees C.
  • The measured solubility data of sulfur dioxide in chlorine-treated wastewater were found in good agreement with that obtained using the solubility correlation.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine / isolation & purification. Sulfur Dioxide / chemistry. Water Pollutants, Chemical / isolation & purification. Water Purification / methods

  • HSDB. structure - SULFUR DIOXIDE.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 15756976.001).
  • [ISSN] 1093-4529
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous substances & environmental engineering
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Water Pollutants, Chemical; 0UZA3422Q4 / Sulfur Dioxide; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine
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71. ||........ 18%  Liu H, Korshin GV, Ferguson JF: Investigation of the kinetics and mechanisms of the oxidation of cerussite and hydrocerussite by chlorine. Environ Sci Technol; 2008 May 1;42(9):3241-7
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  • [Title] Investigation of the kinetics and mechanisms of the oxidation of cerussite and hydrocerussite by chlorine.
  • Reactions of representative lead (II) solid phases (hydrocerussite, cerussite) with chlorine were examined in this study.
  • Chlorine consumption profiles for these solids exhibited a lag phase, during which little consumption of chlorine occurred, and an ensuing rapid reaction phase.
  • The durations of these phases were affected by the pH, carbonate, and chlorine concentrations.
  • [MeSH-major] Carbonates / chemistry. Chlorine / chemistry. Lead / analysis. Lead / chemistry. Oxygen / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Carbon / chemistry. Catalysis. Crystallization. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Kinetics. Microscopy, Electron, Scanning. Models, Chemical. Oxidative Stress. Temperature. Time Factors. Water Pollutants / analysis. X-Ray Diffraction

  • HSDB. structure - CARBON BLACK.
  • HSDB. structure - LEAD CARBONATE.
  • HSDB. structure - LEAD, ELEMENTAL.
  • HSDB. structure - CARBON.
  • HSDB. structure - OXYGEN.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 18522100.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-936X
  • [Journal-full-title] Environmental science & technology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Environ. Sci. Technol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carbonates; 0 / Water Pollutants; 0 / hydrocerussite; 2P299V784P / Lead; 43M0P24L2B / lead carbonate; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; 7440-44-0 / Carbon; S88TT14065 / Oxygen
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72. ||........ 18%  Zanoni MV, Sene JJ, Selcuk H, Anderson MA: Photoelectrocatalytic production of active chlorine on nanocrystalline titanium dioxide thin-film electrodes. Environ Sci Technol; 2004 Jun 1;38(11):3203-8
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  • [Title] Photoelectrocatalytic production of active chlorine on nanocrystalline titanium dioxide thin-film electrodes.
  • The production of chlorine and hypochlorite is of great economical and technological interest due to their large-scale use in many kinds of commercial applications.
  • Yet, the current processes are not without problems such as inevitable side reactions and the high cost of production.
  • This work reports the photoelectrocatalytic oxidation of chloride ions to free chlorine as it has been investigated by using titanium dioxide (TiO2) and several metal-doped titanium dioxide (M-TiO2) material electrodes.
  • An average concentration of 800 mg L(-1) of free chlorine was obtained in an open-air reactor using a TiO2 thin-film electrode biased at +1.0 V (SCE) and illuminated by UV light.
  • Test solutions containing 0.05 mol L(-1) NaCl pH 2.0-4.0 were found to be the best conditions for fast production of free chlorine.
  • A complete investigation of all parameters that influence the global process of chlorine production by the photo electrocatalytic method such as applied potential, concentration of NaCl, pH solution, and time is presented in detail.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine / analysis. Hypochlorous Acid / chemical synthesis. Nanotechnology
  • [MeSH-minor] Chlorides / chemistry. Conservation of Natural Resources. Crystallization. Electrochemistry. Electrodes. Ions. Oxidation-Reduction. Photochemistry

  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 15224756.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-936X
  • [Journal-full-title] Environmental science & technology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Environ. Sci. Technol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chlorides; 0 / Ions; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; 712K4CDC10 / Hypochlorous Acid
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73. ||........ 18%  O'Reilly RJ, Chan B, Taylor MS, Ivanic S, Bacskay GB, Easton CJ, Radom L: Hydrogen abstraction by chlorine atom from amino acids: remarkable influence of polar effects on regioselectivity. J Am Chem Soc; 2011 Oct 19;133(41):16553-9
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  • [Title] Hydrogen abstraction by chlorine atom from amino acids: remarkable influence of polar effects on regioselectivity.
  • Quantum chemistry computations have been used to investigate hydrogen-atom abstraction by chlorine atom from protonated and N-acetylated amino acids.
  • [MeSH-major] Amino Acids / chemistry. Chlorine / chemistry. Hydrogen / chemistry

  • HSDB. structure - HYDROGEN.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 21942745.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-5126
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Chemical Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Chem. Soc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Amino Acids; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; 7YNJ3PO35Z / Hydrogen
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74. ||........ 18%  Hwang IH, Matsuto T, Tanaka N: Water-soluble characteristics of chlorine in char derived from municipal solid wastes. Waste Manag; 2006;26(6):571-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Water-soluble characteristics of chlorine in char derived from municipal solid wastes.
  • Chlorine in char derived from municipal solid waste (MSW) was characterized and quantified based on its water solubility: easily water-soluble, hardly water-soluble, and non-water-soluble chlorine.
  • For that, a four-cycle process of water-washing, heating or carbonation were carried out.
  • In order to confirm the characteristics of non-water-soluble chlorine, additional thermal treatment and an alkali-acid washing process were applied to washed char.
  • It was found that a large particle size of char (0.5-1.0 mm) significantly contributed to the amount of non-water-soluble chlorine.
  • Pulverization and HNO3-HF digestion were performed to identify a factor to interfere chlorine release from char with a large particle size.
  • Pulverization was proven ineffective for release of non-water-soluble chlorine, whereas approximately 32% of non-water-soluble chlorine was extracted by HNO3-HF digestion.
  • Therefore, the presence of non-water-soluble chlorine is likely to originate from its chemical property rather than simply from its physical one.
  • [MeSH-major] Carbon / chemistry. Chlorine / chemistry. Refuse Disposal / methods. Waste Products / analysis. Water Pollution, Chemical / prevention & control

  • HSDB. structure - CARBON BLACK.
  • HSDB. structure - CARBON.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 16026975.001).
  • [ISSN] 0956-053X
  • [Journal-full-title] Waste management (New York, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Waste Manag
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Waste Products; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; 7440-44-0 / Carbon
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75. ||........ 18%  Lynch E, Sheerin A, Claxson AW, Atherton MD, Rhodes CJ, Silwood CJ, Naughton DP, Grootveld M: Multicomponent spectroscopic investigations of salivary antioxidant consumption by an oral rinse preparation containing the stable free radical species chlorine dioxide (ClO2.). Free Radic Res; 1997 Mar;26(3):209-34
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Multicomponent spectroscopic investigations of salivary antioxidant consumption by an oral rinse preparation containing the stable free radical species chlorine dioxide (ClO2.).
  • A multicomponent evaluation of the oxidative consumption of salivary biomolecules by a commercially-available oral rinse preparation containing an admixture of the stable free radical species chlorine dioxide (ClO2.) with chlorite anion (ClO2-) has been investigated using high resolution 1H NMR spectroscopy.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine / chemistry. Chlorine / pharmacology. Chlorine Compounds. Free Radicals / pharmacology. Oxides / chemistry. Oxides / pharmacology. Saliva / chemistry. Spectrum Analysis / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Absorption. Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Male. Models, Chemical. Mouthwashes / chemistry. Mouthwashes / pharmacology. Mouthwashes / therapeutic use. Oxidation-Reduction. Oxygen Consumption / drug effects

  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE DIOXIDE.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 9161844.001).
  • [ISSN] 1071-5762
  • [Journal-full-title] Free radical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Free Radic. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] SWITZERLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chlorine Compounds; 0 / Free Radicals; 0 / Mouthwashes; 0 / Oxides; 0 / RetarDEX oral rinse; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; 8061YMS4RM / chlorine dioxide
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76. ||........ 18%  Lu SC, Wang WX, Gao PL, Zhang W, Tu ZF: Photoinduced chlorine atom-transfer cyclization/photohydrolysis of 3-acyl-2-chloro-N-(ω-phenylalkynyl)pyrroles: a one-pot synthesis of benzoyl-substituted fused pyrroles. Org Biomol Chem; 2012 Jan 14;10(2):232-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Photoinduced chlorine atom-transfer cyclization/photohydrolysis of 3-acyl-2-chloro-N-(ω-phenylalkynyl)pyrroles: a one-pot synthesis of benzoyl-substituted fused pyrroles.
  • The formation of all these products could be inferred by a two-step reactions, namely, photoinduced chlorine atom-transfer cyclization and subsequent photohydrolysis.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine / chemistry. Pyrroles / chemical synthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Crystallography, X-Ray. Cyclization. Hydrolysis. Indoles / chemical synthesis. Indoles / chemistry. Models, Molecular. Molecular Structure. Photochemical Processes. Stereoisomerism

  • HSDB. structure - PYRROLE.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 22012466.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-0539
  • [Journal-full-title] Organic & biomolecular chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Org. Biomol. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Indoles; 0 / Pyrroles; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine
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77. ||........ 18%  Cai Y, Wang W, Shen K, Wang J, Hu X, Lin L, Liu X, Feng X: Highly enantioselective alpha-chlorination of cyclic beta-ketoesters catalyzed by N,N'-dioxide using NCS as the chlorine source. Chem Commun (Camb); 2010 Feb 28;46(8):1250-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Highly enantioselective alpha-chlorination of cyclic beta-ketoesters catalyzed by N,N'-dioxide using NCS as the chlorine source.
  • A simple and highly efficient N,N'-dioxide organocatalyst system was developed for the asymmetric alpha-chlorination of cyclic beta-ketoesters using easily available NCS as the chlorine source to provide a series of optically active alpha-chloro-beta-ketoesters in excellent yields with 90-98% ee.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine / chemistry. Halogenation. Ketones / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Catalysis. Esters / chemical synthesis. Esters / chemistry. Stereoisomerism

  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 20449266.001).
  • [ISSN] 1364-548X
  • [Journal-full-title] Chemical communications (Cambridge, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Esters; 0 / Ketones; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine
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78. ||........ 18%  Gottardi W, Karl A: [Chlorine coatings on skin surfaces. II. Parameters influencing the coating strength]. Zentralbl Hyg Umweltmed; 1991 May;191(5-6):478-93
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Chlorine coatings on skin surfaces. II. Parameters influencing the coating strength].
  • Although active chlorine compounds have been used for more than 140 years (Semmelweis, 1848) as a skin disinfectant the phenomenon of the "chlorine covers" not earlier than 1988 has been described for the first time (Hyg. + Med.
  • Its origin is chlorine covalently bound in the form of N-Cl functions to the protein matrix of the horny skin.
  • Since the chlorine covers exhibit a persistant disinfecting activity which might be important for practice, the factors influencing their strength have been established.
  • The most important are: the kind of the chlorine system, the concentration (oxydation capacity), pH, temperature and the volume of the used solution, the time of action, the application technique and the state of the skin.
  • However on skin surfaces moistened by sweat (e.g. hands covered by surgeons gloves) the chlorine cover is disingrated much more faster (decomposition rate: 40-50% per hour).
  • Washing with soap as well as the action of alcohols cause virtually no decrease in the cover strength, while wetting by solutions of reducing agents (e.g. thiosulfate, cysteine, iodide) provokes a fast decomposition suitable for removing the chlorine covers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine / metabolism. Disinfection / methods. Skin / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Alcohols / pharmacology. Cysteine / pharmacology. Hand Disinfection. Humans. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Iodides / pharmacology. Oxidation-Reduction. Protein Binding. Soaps / pharmacology. Sweat. Temperature. Thiosulfates / pharmacology. Time Factors

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Germs and Hygiene.
  • HSDB. structure - CYSTEINE.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 1883474.001).
  • [ISSN] 0934-8859
  • [Journal-full-title] Zentralblatt für Hygiene und Umweltmedizin = International journal of hygiene and environmental medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zentralbl Hyg Umweltmed
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] GERMANY
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Alcohols; 0 / Iodides; 0 / Soaps; 0 / Thiosulfates; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; K848JZ4886 / Cysteine
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79. ||........ 18%  Gottardi W: [Aqueous iodine solutions as disinfectants: composition, stability, comparison with chlorine and bromine solution (author's transl)]. Zentralbl Bakteriol B; 1978 Sep;167(3):206-15
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Aqueous iodine solutions as disinfectants: composition, stability, comparison with chlorine and bromine solution (author's transl)].
  • The equilibrium concentrations of aqueous iodine solutions in dependence of the total concentration and the pH-value have been calculated with and without regard of the iodate formation.
  • On the grounds of these calculations to aqueous iodine solutions in the concentration and pH-range which is relevant for disinfection (greater than 10(-5) M/l, pH 6--9) one can attribute a stability sufficient for the use in practice and - unlike chlorine and bromine solutions - a content of bactericidal "free halogene" which is higher and independent of the pH-value.
  • [MeSH-minor] Bromine. Chlorine. Drug Stability. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Solubility

  • HSDB. structure - IODINE.
  • HSDB. structure - BROMINE.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 32706.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9661
  • [Journal-full-title] Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene. Erste Abteilung Originale. Reihe B: Hygiene, Betriebshygiene, präventive Medizin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zentralbl Bakteriol B
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] GERMANY, WEST
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Disinfectants; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; 9679TC07X4 / Iodine; SBV4XY874G / Bromine
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80. ||........ 18%  Ma D, Gao B, Sun S, Wang Y, Yue Q, Li Q: Effects of dissolved organic matter size fractions on trihalomethanes formation in MBR effluents during chlorine disinfection. Bioresour Technol; 2013 May;136:535-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effects of dissolved organic matter size fractions on trihalomethanes formation in MBR effluents during chlorine disinfection.
  • For these fractions, THMs formation was mostly attributed to slow chlorine decay, and THMs yield coefficients were low because halogenated intermediates derived from the macromolecular DOM were difficult to decompose to produce THMs.
  • [MeSH-major] Bioreactors. Chlorine / chemistry. Disinfection. Membranes, Artificial. Organic Chemicals / chemistry. Trihalomethanes / chemical synthesis. Waste Disposal, Fluid

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 23567728.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-2976
  • [Journal-full-title] Bioresource technology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bioresour. Technol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Membranes, Artificial; 0 / Organic Chemicals; 0 / Trihalomethanes; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine
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81. ||........ 18%  Lebedev AT, Shaydullina GM, Sinikova NA, Harchevnikova NV: GC-MS comparison of the behavior of chlorine and sodium hypochlorite towards organic compounds dissolved in water. Water Res; 2004 Oct;38(17):3713-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] GC-MS comparison of the behavior of chlorine and sodium hypochlorite towards organic compounds dissolved in water.
  • Chlorine and sodium hypochlorite were used as commonly employed disinfecting agents.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine / chemistry. Sodium Hypochlorite / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Solubility. Water / chemistry. Water Purification

  • HSDB. structure - SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
  • IndexCopernicus. author profiles.
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  • (PMID = 15350423.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-1354
  • [Journal-full-title] Water research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Water Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 059QF0KO0R / Water; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; DY38VHM5OD / Sodium Hypochlorite
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82. ||........ 18%  Xie Y, Wang Y, Giammar DE: Impact of chlorine disinfectants on dissolution of the lead corrosion product PbO2. Environ Sci Technol; 2010 Sep 15;44(18):7082-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Impact of chlorine disinfectants on dissolution of the lead corrosion product PbO2.
  • Plattnerite (β-PbO(2)) is a corrosion product that develops on lead pipes that have been in contact with free chlorine present as a residual disinfectant.
  • The reductive dissolution of PbO(2) can cause elevated lead concentrations in tap water when the residual disinfectant is switched from free chlorine to monochloramine.
  • The objectives of this study were to quantify plattnerite dissolution rates in the presence of chlorine disinfectants, gain insights into dissolution mechanisms, and measure plattnerite's equilibrium solubility in the presence of free chlorine.
  • The effects of free chlorine and monochloramine on the dissolution rates of plattnerite were quantified in completely mixed continuous-flow reactors at relevant pH and dissolved inorganic carbon conditions.
  • Plattnerite dissolution rates decreased in the following order: no disinfectant > monochloramine > chlorine, which was consistent with the trend in the redox potential.
  • Although free chlorine maintained steady-state lead concentrations below the action level of 15 μg/L in flow-through experiments, in batch experiments lead concentrations exceeded the action level for longer residence times and approached an equilibrium value that was several orders of magnitude higher than that predicted from available thermodynamic data.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine / chemistry. Disinfectants / chemistry. Lead / chemistry. Oxides / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Chloramines. Corrosion. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Kinetics. Least-Squares Analysis. Oxidation-Reduction. Solubility. Time Factors

  • HSDB. structure - CHLORAMINE.
  • HSDB. structure - LEAD DIOXIDE.
  • HSDB. structure - LEAD OXIDE.
  • HSDB. structure - LEAD, ELEMENTAL.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 20715864.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-5851
  • [Journal-full-title] Environmental science & technology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Environ. Sci. Technol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chloramines; 0 / Disinfectants; 0 / Oxides; 10599-90-3 / chloramine; 2P299V784P / Lead; 4IN6FN8492 / lead oxide; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine
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83. ||........ 18%  Lang YM, Liu CB, Yu YZ, Qian YJ, Zhang L, Liu W: [Impacts of suspended solids on "tailing" phenomenon in disinfection of sewage with chlorine]. Huan Jing Ke Xue; 2010 Jun;31(6):1470-7
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  • [Title] [Impacts of suspended solids on "tailing" phenomenon in disinfection of sewage with chlorine].
  • The impacts of suspended solids in secondary effluent on "tailing" phenomenon in disinfection of E. coli with chlorine were investigated using kinetic disinfection curves.
  • In addition, higher chlorine dosage and lower pH value could slightly enhance the log-kill in the "tailing" region.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine / pharmacology. Disinfectants / pharmacology. Escherichia coli / drug effects. Sewage / microbiology. Water Purification / methods

  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 20698258.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-3301
  • [Journal-full-title] Huan jing ke xue= Huanjing kexue / [bian ji, Zhongguo ke xue yuan huan jing ke xue wei yuan hui "Huan jing ke xue" bian ji wei yuan hui.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Huan Jing Ke Xue
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Disinfectants; 0 / Sewage; 0 / Suspensions; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine
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84. ||........ 18%  Winget P, Horn AH, Selçuki C, Martin B, Clark T: AM1* parameters for phosphorus, sulfur and chlorine. J Mol Model; 2003 Dec;9(6):408-14
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  • [Title] AM1* parameters for phosphorus, sulfur and chlorine.
  • AM1* uses AM1 parameters and theory unchanged for the elements H, C, N, O and F.
  • The elements P, S and Cl have been reparameterized using an additional set of d orbitals in the basis set and with two-center core-core parameters, rather than the Gaussian functions used to modify the core-core potential in AM1.
  • Voityuk and Rösch's AM1(d) parameters have been adopted unchanged for AM1* with the exception that new core-core parameters are defined for Mo-P, Mo-S and Mo-Cl interactions.
  • Thus, AM1* gives identical results to AM1 for compounds with only H, C, N, O, and F, AM1(d) for compounds containing Mo, H, C, N, O and F only, but differs for molybdenum compounds containing P, S or Cl.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine / chemistry. Phosphorus / chemistry. Sulfur / chemistry

  • HSDB. structure - SULFUR.
  • HSDB. structure - PHOSPHORUS.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 12955599.001).
  • [ISSN] 0948-5023
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of molecular modeling
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Mol Model
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 27YLU75U4W / Phosphorus; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; 70FD1KFU70 / Sulfur
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85. ||........ 18%  Shi HX, Qu JH, Wang AM, Ge JT: Degradation of microcystins in aqueous solution with in situ electrogenerated active chlorine. Chemosphere; 2005 Jul;60(3):326-33
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  • [Title] Degradation of microcystins in aqueous solution with in situ electrogenerated active chlorine.
  • Microcystins (MCs) in water were directly and effectively removed by active chlorine transformed in situ from the naturally existing Cl- in water resource using electrochemical method.
  • The results suggested that 20.87 mgl(-1) MCs (12.58 mgl(-1) MCRR and 8.29 mgl(-1) MCLR) in aqueous solution with 1.85 mM Cl- could be synchronously decomposed within 15 min electrolysis under the condition of the current density 8.89 mAcm(-2), 20 degrees C and pH 7.00.
  • The results also indicated that the removal rates of both MCs increased with the increasing of chloride concentration and applied current density, but decreased with the increasing of initial concentration of MCs and initial pH of electrolyte.
  • In the absence of Cl-, only a small fraction of both MCs were decomposed by direct anodic oxidation, while their almost complete removals could be obtained in the case of indirect electrooxidation with in situ electrogenerated active chlorine from Cl- in water.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine / chemistry. Peptides, Cyclic / chemistry. Water Pollutants, Chemical / analysis. Water Purification / methods

  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 15924951.001).
  • [ISSN] 0045-6535
  • [Journal-full-title] Chemosphere
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chemosphere
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Microcystins; 0 / Peptides, Cyclic; 0 / Water Pollutants, Chemical; 101043-37-2 / cyanoginosin LR; 111755-37-4 / microcystin RR; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine
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86. ||........ 18%  Hughes AS, Vanbriesen JM, Small MJ: Identification of structural properties associated with polychlorinated biphenyl dechlorination processes. Environ Sci Technol; 2010 Apr 15;44(8):2842-8
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  • Polychlorinated biphenyl molecules can be biologically dechlorinated through sequential losses of a chlorine atom, following 840 pathways from higher chlorinated to lesser-chlorinated congeners and biphenyl.
  • However, due to analytical limitations and a paucity of studies, the explicitly reported pathways in dechlorination processes likely do not represent all of the pathways that could occur at contaminated sites.
  • Trees fit for pathway inclusion in each of the eight dechlorination processes with alternative assumptions are compared in terms of critical congener attributes.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Molecular Structure. Polychlorinated Biphenyls / chemistry

  • HSDB. structure - POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 20025283.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-936X
  • [Journal-full-title] Environmental science & technology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Environ. Sci. Technol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; DFC2HB4I0K / Polychlorinated Biphenyls
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87. ||........ 18%  Lu J, Benjamin MM, Korshin GV, Gallard H: Reactions of the flavonoid hesperetin with chlorine: a spectroscopic study of the reaction pathways. Environ Sci Technol; 2004 Sep 1;38(17):4603-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Reactions of the flavonoid hesperetin with chlorine: a spectroscopic study of the reaction pathways.
  • The flavonoid hesperetin (Hsp) contains aromatic rings substituted with hydroxyl and methoxyl groups, which activate it toward electrophilic attack and hence make it a potential surrogate for natural organic matter with respect to reactions with chlorine.
  • When a solution containing Hsp is dosed with NaOCl at pH 7, chlorine substitution into Hsp occurs exclusively into the meta-dihydroxy substituted ring.
  • The first two Cl atoms to enter the ring do so at the highly activated carbons that are each ortho to two oxygenated carbon atoms.
  • These substitutions make the molecule more acidic, but do not change its primary structure or aromaticity.
  • The third Cl atom that substitutes into the molecule does so at one of the previously chlorinated sites, destroying the aromaticity of the ring and altering the molecular properties more dramatically than do the first two.
  • Di- and trichloroHsp form even at low molar Cl/Hsp ratios, and can coexist with Hsp and monochloroHsp in neutral, aqueous solutions for at least 24 h in the absence of free chlorine.
  • If free chlorine is present, the less-chlorinated species continue to acquire Cl, and trichloroHsp undergoes further reaction, until either the free chlorine or the trichloroHsp is fully depleted.
  • The appearance of di- and trichloroHsp while substantial amounts of Hsp remain unreacted indicates that substitution of one or two Cl atoms into the ring facilitates the incorporation of yet more Cl into the ring.
  • This autoacceleration of the chlorination process is hypothesized to be induced by the increase in acidity that accompanies Cl incorporation.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine / chemistry. Hesperidin / chemistry. Water Purification
  • [MeSH-minor] Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Mass Spectrometry / methods. Models, Chemical. Molecular Structure. Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization. Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet

  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 15461169.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-936X
  • [Journal-full-title] Environmental science & technology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Environ. Sci. Technol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; 520-33-2 / hesperetin; E750O06Y6O / Hesperidin
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88. ||........ 18%  Zhao ZW, Cui FY, Lin T, Liu GP: [Inactivation and removal of chlorine dioxide on cyclops of zooplankton]. Huan Jing Ke Xue; 2007 Aug;28(8):1759-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Inactivation and removal of chlorine dioxide on cyclops of zooplankton].
  • Comparative experiments on the inactivation of cyclops by chlorine dioxide and chlorine were conducted.
  • Batch experiments were performed in order to analyze the influence of pH value, organic precursor concentration on the rate of inactivation of cyclops with chlorine dioxide.
  • It was found that chlorine dioxide possessed better inactivation effect than chlorine.
  • Cyclops can be completely inactivated after 30 min of contact time by low dosage of chlorine dioxide (1.0 mg/L).
  • The rate of inactivation was essentially the same at pH 5.7 and 8.0, and pH 9.8 resulted in the 10% of decrease in inactivation rate of cyclops than pH 5.7 - 8.0 in same contact time.
  • The coagulation jar test showed that cyclops in the raw water could be completely removed by synergistic effect of chlorine dioxide pre-oxidation followed by coagulation process at chlorine dioxide dosage of 0.9 mg/L.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine Compounds / pharmacology. Copepoda / drug effects. Disinfectants / pharmacology. Oxides / pharmacology. Water Purification / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Chlorine / chemistry. Chlorine / pharmacology. Drug Synergism. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Oxidation-Reduction. Water Pollution / prevention & control. Water Supply. Zooplankton / drug effects. Zooplankton / growth & development

  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE DIOXIDE.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 17926406.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-3301
  • [Journal-full-title] Huan jing ke xue= Huanjing kexue / [bian ji, Zhongguo ke xue yuan huan jing ke xue wei yuan hui "Huan jing ke xue" bian ji wei yuan hui.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Huan Jing Ke Xue
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chlorine Compounds; 0 / Disinfectants; 0 / Oxides; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; 8061YMS4RM / chlorine dioxide
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89. ||........ 18%  Zhou P, Zhou C, Gong HR: Chlorine adsorption on Mg, Ca, and MgCa surfaces. Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl; 2013 Oct;33(7):3826-31
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  • [Title] Chlorine adsorption on Mg, Ca, and MgCa surfaces.
  • Moreover, calculations reveal that the adsorption energy of Cl atom on Ca (111) surface is much lower than that on Mg (0001) surface due to a stronger CaCl bond than MgCl, and that for MgCa (110) surface, various possible adsorption of Cl atoms are investigated and the most energetically preferred site is found.
  • In addition, the magnitude of adsorption energies suggest that the corrosion resistance of MgCa (110) surface against Cl atom would be located between those of Mg (0001) and Ca (111) surfaces.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcium / chemistry. Chlorine / chemistry. Magnesium / chemistry

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 23910283.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-0191
  • [Journal-full-title] Materials science & engineering. C, Materials for biological applications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; I38ZP9992A / Magnesium; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Bonding / Chlorine adsorption / First principles calculations / MgCa surface
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90. ||........ 17%  Moore GS, Calabrese EJ, DiNardi SR, Tuthill RW: Potential health effects of chlorine dioxide as a disinfectant in potable water supplies. Med Hypotheses; 1978 Sep-Oct;4(5):481-96
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  • [Title] Potential health effects of chlorine dioxide as a disinfectant in potable water supplies.
  • Chlorine dioxide has been proposed as an alternative disinfectant to chlorine.
  • However, chlorine dioxide is a strong oxidant that forms significant amounts of chlorite when added to potable water supplies, and chlorite is similar to nitrite in its molecular structure and may be similar in its mechanism of methemoglobin production.
  • Since male blacks represent the largest population in the U.S. to be G-6PD deficient, Black male neonates may represent the group at highest risk to the use of chlorine dioxide as a disinfectant in the nations water supplies.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine / adverse effects. Disinfectants / adverse effects. Methemoglobinemia / chemically induced. Water Supply

  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 753950.001).
  • [ISSN] 0306-9877
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical hypotheses
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Hypotheses
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chlorates; 0 / Disinfectants; 0 / Nitrates; 0 / Nitrites; 0 / Oxides; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine
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91. ||........ 17%  Dodd MC, Shah AD, von Gunten U, Huang CH: Interactions of fluoroquinolone antibacterial agents with aqueous chlorine: reaction kinetics, mechanisms, and transformation pathways. Environ Sci Technol; 2005 Sep 15;39(18):7065-76
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  • [Title] Interactions of fluoroquinolone antibacterial agents with aqueous chlorine: reaction kinetics, mechanisms, and transformation pathways.
  • Kinetics, products, and mechanistic aspects of reactions between free available chlorine (HOCl/OCl-), ciprofloxacin (CF), and enrofloxacin (EF) were extensively investigated to elucidate the behavior of fluoroquinolone antibacterial agents during water chlorination processes.
  • In contrast, HOCl reacts relatively slowly at EF's tertiary N(4) amine, apparently forming a highly reactive chlorammonium intermediate (R3N-(4)Cl+) that can catalytically halogenate EF or other substrates present in solution.
  • Flumequine, a fluoroquinolone that lacks the characteristic piperazine ring, exhibits no apparent reactivity toward HOCI but appears to undergo facile halodecarboxylation in the presence of R3N(4)-Cl+ species derived from EF.
  • Measured reaction kinetics were validated in real water matrixes by modeling CF and EF losses in the presence of free chlorine residuals.
  • Combined chlorine (CC) kinetics were determined under selected conditions to evaluate the potential significance of reactions with chloramines.
  • CF's rapid kinetics in direct reactions with HOCl, and relatively high reactivity toward CC, indicate that secondary amine-containing fluoroquinolones should be readily transformed during chlorination of real waters, whether applied chlorine doses are present as free or combined residuals.
  • However, EF's slower HOCl reaction kinetics, recalcitrance toward CC, and participation in the catalytic halogenation cycle described herein suggest that tertiary amine-containing fluoroquinolones will be comparatively stable during most full-scale water chlorination processes.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology. Chlorine / pharmacology. Fluoroquinolones / pharmacology. Water Pollutants, Chemical / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Amines. Catalysis. Chloramines / analysis. Chlorine Compounds / analysis. Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid. Ciprofloxacin / pharmacology. Disinfectants / pharmacology. Drug Interactions. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Kinetics. Models, Chemical. Models, Statistical. Molecular Weight. Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization. Temperature. Time Factors. Water / analysis. Water Purification

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Antibiotics.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
  • HSDB. structure - CIPROFLOXACIN.
  • HSDB. structure - ENROFLOXACIN.
  • COS Scholar Universe. author profiles.
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  • (PMID = 16201630.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-936X
  • [Journal-full-title] Environmental science & technology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Environ. Sci. Technol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Amines; 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Chloramines; 0 / Chlorine Compounds; 0 / Disinfectants; 0 / Fluoroquinolones; 0 / Water Pollutants, Chemical; 059QF0KO0R / Water; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; 5E8K9I0O4U / Ciprofloxacin; 93106-60-6 / enrofloxacin; UVG8VSP2SJ / flumequine
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92. ||........ 17%  Riechers R, Pentlehner D, Slenczka A: Microsolvation in superfluid helium droplets studied by the electronic spectra of six porphyrin derivatives and one chlorine compound. J Chem Phys; 2013 Jun 28;138(24):244303
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  • [Title] Microsolvation in superfluid helium droplets studied by the electronic spectra of six porphyrin derivatives and one chlorine compound.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine / chemistry. Helium / chemistry. Porphyrins / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 23822240.001).
  • [ISSN] 1089-7690
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of chemical physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chem Phys
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Porphyrins; 206GF3GB41 / Helium; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine
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93. ||........ 17%  Fernandes WB, Aragão AQ, Martins FT, Noda-Perez C, Lariucci C, Napolitano HB: The discrete role of chlorine substitutions in the conformation and supramolecular architecture of arylsulfonamides. Acta Crystallogr C; 2011 Jul;67(Pt 7):o226-9
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  • [Title] The discrete role of chlorine substitutions in the conformation and supramolecular architecture of arylsulfonamides.
  • Two arylsulfonamide derivatives, N-(4-acetylphenyl)benzenesulfonamide, C(14)H(13)NO(3)S, and N-(4-acetylphenyl)-2,5-dichlorobenzenesulfonamide, C(14)H(11)Cl(2)NO(3)S, differing by the absence or presence of two chloro substituents on one of the phenyl rings, were synthesized and characterized in order to establish structural relationships and the role of chloro substitution on the molecular conformation and crystal assembly.
  • The substitution of two H atoms at the 2- and 5-positions of one phenyl ring by Cl atoms did not substantially alter the molecular conformation or the intermolecular architecture displayed by the unsubstituted sulfonamide.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine / chemistry. Sulfonamides / chemistry

  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • [Copyright] © 2011 International Union of Crystallography
  • (PMID = 21727630.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-5759
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta crystallographica. Section C, Crystal structure communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Crystallogr C
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / N-(4-acetylphenyl)benzenesulfonamide; 0 / Sulfonamides; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine
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94. ||........ 17%  Rajkumar D, Kim JG: Oxidation of various reactive dyes with in situ electro-generated active chlorine for textile dyeing industry wastewater treatment. J Hazard Mater; 2006 Aug 21;136(2):203-12
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  • [Title] Oxidation of various reactive dyes with in situ electro-generated active chlorine for textile dyeing industry wastewater treatment.
  • The present investigation revealed that all the reactive dyes were degraded in chlorine mediated electrochemical oxidation.
  • Titanium based dimensionally stable anode (DSA) was used for in situ generation of chlorine in the dye solution.
  • It can be concluded in general that the triazine containing higher molecular weight diazo compounds takes more time for complete de-colorization than the mono azo or anthraquinone containing dye compounds.
  • However, the initial pH of the dye solution ranging from 4.3 to 9.4 did not show significant effect on de-colorization.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine / chemistry. Coloring Agents / chemistry. Industrial Waste. Textile Industry

  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 16455198.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3894
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hazardous materials
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Hazard. Mater.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Industrial Waste; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine
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95. ||........ 17%  Maldonado MJ: Corneal epithelial alterations resulting from use of chlorine-disinfected contact tonometer after myopic photorefractive keratectomy. Ophthalmology; 1998 Aug;105(8):1546-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Corneal epithelial alterations resulting from use of chlorine-disinfected contact tonometer after myopic photorefractive keratectomy.
  • OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe a previously unreported complication associated with the use of chlorine-disinfected applanation tonometer heads for intraocular pressure measurement after excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy.
  • Goldmann applanation tonometry was performed bilaterally after thoroughly rinsing and drying the tonometer biprism, which had been immersed regularly in a chlorine 5000-parts per million solution.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Disinfecting solutions of chlorine can cause crystal deposit formation on the tonometer head.
  • Applanation tonometry after repeated disinfection with chlorine solutions appears to have the potential for disrupting the epithelial layer of the healing cornea.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine / adverse effects. Corneal Diseases / chemically induced. Disinfectants / adverse effects. Epithelium, Corneal / drug effects. Myopia / surgery. Photorefractive Keratectomy. Tonometry, Ocular / instrumentation

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Corneal Disorders.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 9709772.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-6420
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Disinfectants; 0 / Ophthalmic Solutions; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine
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96. ||........ 17%  Do VT, Tang CY, Reinhard M, Leckie JO: Effects of chlorine exposure conditions on physiochemical properties and performance of a polyamide membrane--mechanisms and implications. Environ Sci Technol; 2012 Dec 18;46(24):13184-92
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  • [Title] Effects of chlorine exposure conditions on physiochemical properties and performance of a polyamide membrane--mechanisms and implications.
  • Understanding the effects of chlorine exposure on polyamide (PA) based membranes is essential in membrane lifespan improvement.
  • The changes in membrane elemental composition and bonding chemistry obtained from XPS and ATR-FTIR revealed the impacts of two competing mechanisms: N-chlorination and chlorination-promoted hydrolysis.
  • More chlorine was incorporated into the PA matrix at pH <7, at which HOCl is dominant, while chlorine-promoted hydrolysis was more favorable at pH >7 with abundant hydroxyl groups.
  • However, when hydrolysis was severe (≥ 1000 ppm, pH 7 and 9), the enhanced charge repulsion effect could not compensate for the extensive amide bond cleavage, resulting in declined rejection.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine / chemistry. Membranes, Artificial. Nylons / chemistry. Physicochemical Phenomena
  • [MeSH-minor] Calcium / chemistry. Cations. Filtration. Halogenation. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Hydrolysis. Nanotechnology. Nitrogen / analysis. Oxygen / analysis. Permeability. Sodium Chloride / chemistry. Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared. Surface Properties. Time Factors. Water / chemistry. Water Pollutants, Chemical / analysis

  • HSDB. structure - CALCIUM, ELEMENTAL.
  • HSDB. structure - SODIUM CHLORIDE.
  • HSDB. structure - NITROGEN.
  • HSDB. structure - OXYGEN.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 23214945.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-5851
  • [Journal-full-title] Environmental science & technology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Environ. Sci. Technol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cations; 0 / Membranes, Artificial; 0 / Nylons; 0 / Water Pollutants, Chemical; 059QF0KO0R / Water; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; 7647-14-5 / Sodium Chloride; N762921K75 / Nitrogen; S88TT14065 / Oxygen; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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97. ||........ 17%  Rodríguez EM, Acero JL, Spoof L, Meriluoto J: Oxidation of MC-LR and -RR with chlorine and potassium permanganate: toxicity of the reaction products. Water Res; 2008 Mar;42(6-7):1744-52
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  • [Title] Oxidation of MC-LR and -RR with chlorine and potassium permanganate: toxicity of the reaction products.
  • Previous studies have demonstrated that chlorine and potassium permanganate are feasible oxidants for the removal of MCs present in drinking water resources, although the oxidation might lead to toxic oxidation products.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine / chemistry. Microcystins / chemistry. Potassium Permanganate / chemistry

  • HSDB. structure - POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
  • ExactAntigen/Labome. author profiles.
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  • (PMID = 18037466.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-1354
  • [Journal-full-title] Water research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Water Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Microcystins; 00OT1QX5U4 / Potassium Permanganate; 101043-37-2 / cyanoginosin LR; 111755-37-4 / microcystin RR; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine
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98. ||........ 17%  Liu GQ, Itaya Y, Yamazaki R, Mori S, Yamaguchi M, Kondoh M: Fundamental study of the behavior of chlorine during the combustion of single RDF. Waste Manag; 2001;21(5):427-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fundamental study of the behavior of chlorine during the combustion of single RDF.
  • A fundamental study of the combustion characteristics and the de-HCl behavior of a single refuse-derived fuel (RDF) pellet was carried out to explain the de-HCl phenomena of RDF during fluidized bed combustion and to provide data for the development of high efficiency power generation technology using RDF.
  • The de-HCl capability of Ca(OH)2 in RDF was evaluated by measuring the emission fraction of HCl in the flue gas and the capture fraction of Cl in the residue.
  • It was found that the capture fraction of Cl components in the residue increased from 0 to nearly 70% when the molar ratio of Ca/Cl was changed from 0 to around 13.
  • The devolatilization process of RDF was confirmed to be a very important part of de-HCl process.
  • The effect of temperature profile of the RDF pellet on the de-HCl process, as it varies with the heating rate of RDF and the oxygen concentration in the vicinity of the sample, is discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine / chemistry. Incineration / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Air Pollution / prevention & control. Calcium / pharmacology. Calcium Hydroxide / pharmacology. Equipment Design. Hot Temperature. Hydrochloric Acid / analysis. Hydrochloric Acid / chemistry. Oxygen / pharmacology. Volatilization

  • HSDB. structure - CALCIUM HYDROXIDE.
  • HSDB. structure - CALCIUM, ELEMENTAL.
  • HSDB. structure - HYDROCHLORIC ACID.
  • HSDB. structure - OXYGEN.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
  • ExactAntigen/Labome. author profiles.
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  • (PMID = 11280983.001).
  • [ISSN] 0956-053X
  • [Journal-full-title] Waste management (New York, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Waste Manag
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; PF5DZW74VN / Calcium Hydroxide; QTT17582CB / Hydrochloric Acid; S88TT14065 / Oxygen; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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99. ||........ 17%  Takasuga T, Makino T, Tsubota K, Takeda N: Formation of dioxins (PCDDs/PCDFs) by dioxin-free fly ash as a catalyst and relation with several chlorine-sources. Chemosphere; 2000 May-Jun;40(9-11):1003-7
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  • [Title] Formation of dioxins (PCDDs/PCDFs) by dioxin-free fly ash as a catalyst and relation with several chlorine-sources.
  • Chlorine sources were PVC, NaCl and HCl.
  • The combustion of samples containing chlorine in the absence of dioxin-free fly ash produced dioxins at a low level although HCl was present in the gas stream.
  • On the other hand, the combustion of samples without chlorine with dioxin-free fly ash increased dioxins formation to a level around 10 times higher than that upon heating dioxin-free fly ash alone.
  • This result is considered to be due to the presence of metal chloride in the fly ash and hydrocarbons in the gas stream.
  • The combustion of samples containing either an organic or inorganic chlorine source or using a HCl stream with dioxin-free fly ash increased dioxin level dramatically.
  • [MeSH-major] Benzofurans / chemical synthesis. Carbon / chemistry. Chlorine / chemistry. Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin / analogs & derivatives

  • HSDB. structure - CARBON BLACK.
  • HSDB. structure - 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN.
  • HSDB. structure - CARBON.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
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  • (PMID = 10739038.001).
  • [ISSN] 0045-6535
  • [Journal-full-title] Chemosphere
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chemosphere
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzofurans; 0 / Coal Ash; 0 / Particulate Matter; 0 / chlorinated dibenzofurans; 0 / polychlorodibenzo-4-dioxin; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; 7440-44-0 / Carbon; DO80M48B6O / Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin
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100. ||........ 17%  Yang D, Yan YL, Zheng BF, Gao Q, Zhu NY: Copper(I)-catalyzed chlorine atom transfer radical cyclization reactions of unsaturated alpha-chloro beta-keto esters. Org Lett; 2006 Dec 7;8(25):5757-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Copper(I)-catalyzed chlorine atom transfer radical cyclization reactions of unsaturated alpha-chloro beta-keto esters.
  • Copper(I) chloride catalyzed chlorine atom transfer radical cyclization reactions of a series of olefinic alpha-chloro beta-keto esters were investigated.
  • It was found that alpha-dichlorinated beta-keto esters were suitable substrates; the chlorine transfer mono or tandem radical cyclization reactions catalyzed by CuCl complex with bis(oxazoline) or bipyridine proceeded smoothly in dichloroethane at room temperature or 80 degrees C, providing cyclic and bicyclic compounds in moderate to high yield.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine / chemistry. Copper / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Catalysis. Cyclization. Esters / chemical synthesis. Free Radicals. Oxazoles / chemistry

  • HSDB. structure - COPPER, ELEMENTAL.
  • HSDB. structure - COPPER(II) CHLORIDE.
  • HSDB. structure - CHLORINE.
  • COS Scholar Universe. author profiles.
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  • (PMID = 17134265.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-7060
  • [Journal-full-title] Organic letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Org. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Esters; 0 / Free Radicals; 0 / Oxazoles; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; 504-76-7 / oxazolidine; 7447-39-4 / cupric chloride; 789U1901C5 / Copper
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