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1. Auclair C, Pierre A, Voisin E, Pepin O, Cros S, Colas C, Saucier JM, Verschuere B, Gros P, Paoletti C: Physicochemical and pharmacological properties of the antitumor ellipticine derivative 2-(diethylamino-2-ethyl)9-hydroxy ellipticinium-chloride, HCl. Cancer Res; 1987 Dec 1;47(23):6254-61
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  • [Title] Physicochemical and pharmacological properties of the antitumor ellipticine derivative 2-(diethylamino-2-ethyl)9-hydroxy ellipticinium-chloride, HCl.
  • 2-(Diethylamino-2-ethyl)9-hydroxyellipticinium-chloride, HCl (DHE), a new congener of the antitumor agent elliptinium acetate (Celiptium) (NMHE), has recently been selected for phase I clinical trials.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Animals. Cell Line. Chemistry, Physical. Colonic Neoplasms / drug therapy. DNA / metabolism. Leukemia L1210 / drug therapy. Leukemia P388 / drug therapy. Melanoma / drug therapy. Mutagenicity Tests. Physicochemical Phenomena. Salmonella / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 3677074.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Alkaloids; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Ellipticines; 117VLW7484 / ellipticine; 81531-57-9 / detalliptinium; 9007-49-2 / DNA
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2. Qi H, Li L, Huang C, Li W, Wu C: Optimization and physicochemical characterization of thermosensitive poloxamer gel containing puerarin for ophthalmic use. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo); 2006 Nov;54(11):1500-7
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  • [Title] Optimization and physicochemical characterization of thermosensitive poloxamer gel containing puerarin for ophthalmic use.
  • The influence of the other ingredients on the physicochemical properties of the formulation was also investigated.
  • Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD) enhanced the gelation temperature and reduced the gel strength and the bioadhesive force, while puerarin and benzalkonium chloride (BC) had a comparatively smaller influence.
  • But only sodium chloride appears to be a promising isotonicity agent for the poloxamer gel containing puerarin, HPCD and BC.
  • [MeSH-major] Isoflavones / chemistry. Poloxamer / chemistry. Temperature
  • [MeSH-minor] Benzalkonium Compounds / chemistry. Chemistry, Physical. Gels. Ophthalmic Solutions. Physicochemical Phenomena. beta-Cyclodextrins / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 17077546.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-2363
  • [Journal-full-title] Chemical & pharmaceutical bulletin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chem. Pharm. Bull.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzalkonium Compounds; 0 / Gels; 0 / Isoflavones; 0 / Ophthalmic Solutions; 0 / beta-Cyclodextrins; 106392-12-5 / Poloxamer; 94035-02-6 / 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin; Z9W8997416 / puerarin
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3. López-Corcuera B, Alcántara R, Vázquez J, Aragón C: Hydrodynamic properties and immunological identification of the sodium- and chloride-coupled glycine transporter. J Biol Chem; 1993 Jan 25;268(3):2239-43
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  • [Title] Hydrodynamic properties and immunological identification of the sodium- and chloride-coupled glycine transporter.
  • We have recently reported the purification of the native sodium- and chloride-coupled glycine transporter from pig brain stem (López-Corcuera, B.
  • Taken together, the results reported herein corroborate the identity of the 100-kDa band as the sodium- and chloride-coupled glycine transporter and also suggest that in its native state the transporter is a monomeric protein.
  • [MeSH-major] Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral. Brain Stem / chemistry. Carrier Proteins / chemistry. Chlorides / metabolism. Sodium / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antigens / immunology. Centrifugation, Density Gradient. Chemistry, Physical. Cholic Acid. Cholic Acids / metabolism. Chromatography, Gel. Deuterium. Glycine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins. Immune Sera / immunology. Immunosorbent Techniques. Molecular Weight. Physicochemical Phenomena. Swine

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  • (PMID = 8420992.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9258
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of biological chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biol. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral; 0 / Antigens; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Chlorides; 0 / Cholic Acids; 0 / Glycine Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins; 0 / Immune Sera; 75621-03-3 / 3-((3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonium)-1-propanesulfonate; 9NEZ333N27 / Sodium; AR09D82C7G / Deuterium; G1JO7801AE / Cholic Acid
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4. Kodym A, Zawisza T, Taberska J, Kukuła H: Physicochemical and microbiological properties of eye drops containing cefuroxime. Acta Pol Pharm; 2006 Jul-Aug;63(4):293-9
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  • [Title] Physicochemical and microbiological properties of eye drops containing cefuroxime.
  • The purpose of the studies was to examine the influence of the additives and storage temperature on physicochemical properties and on the antimicrobial activity of cefuroxime in the eye drops.
  • The eye drops were 1% sterile aqueous solutions of cefuroxime in citrate buffer of pH 6.15-6.20, preserved with 0.002% thiomersal or 0.001% phenylmercuric borate with 0.4% beta-phenylethyl alcohol.
  • As the criteria of the qualitative assessment of freshly prepared eye drops and during their storage, the following properties were considered: organoleptic analysis (color, clarity, and smell), sterility, pH, osmotic pressure, density, and viscosity, antimicrobial activity of cefuroxime and preservation efficiency of thiomersal and phenylmercuric borate in the eye drops.
  • The antimicrobial activity of cefuroxime in the drops stored for 30 days at the temperature of 4 degrees C did not decrease.
  • Thiomersal at the concentration over 0.003%, 0.005% benzalkonium chloride and 0.01% chlorhexidine diacetate were not compatible with cefuroxime in the drops.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Infective Agents / chemistry. Anti-Infective Agents / pharmacology. Cefuroxime / chemistry. Cefuroxime / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Bacteria / drug effects. Chemistry, Physical. Fungi / drug effects. Microbial Sensitivity Tests. Ophthalmic Solutions. Osmotic Pressure. Physicochemical Phenomena. Sterilization. Viscosity

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  • (PMID = 17203867.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6837
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta poloniae pharmaceutica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Pol Pharm
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Infective Agents; 0 / Ophthalmic Solutions; O1R9FJ93ED / Cefuroxime
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5. Lagerberg JW, Williams M, Moor AC, Brand A, van der Zee J, Dubbelman TM, VanSteveninck J: The influence of merocyanine 540 and protoporphyrin on physicochemical properties of the erythrocyte membrane. Biochim Biophys Acta; 1996 Jan 31;1278(2):247-53
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  • [Title] The influence of merocyanine 540 and protoporphyrin on physicochemical properties of the erythrocyte membrane.
  • The interaction of the red cell membrane with merocyanine 540 or protoporphyrin led to four phenomena, most probably interrelated. (i) The morphology changed from the normal discoid to an echinocytic form.
  • The pathway of this temporary leak seems to be unrelated to the Na+/K+ -ATPase, the K+/Cl- and the Na+/K+/Cl- cotransport systems, the Ca2+-activated Gardos pathway, the oxidation/deformation-activated leak pathway and the so-called residual transport route.
  • Despite the morphological changes, K+-leakage induced by mechanical stress was not increased. (iv) During osmotic swelling, the critical hemolytic volume was found to be increased in the presence of either merocyanine 540 or protoporphyrin.
  • The increase critical volume protected erythrocytes against osmotic hemolysis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Membrane Permeability. Chemistry, Physical. Erythrocyte Deformability / drug effects. Erythrocytes / cytology. Erythrocytes / drug effects. Erythrocytes / physiology. Hemolysis. Humans. Osmosis. Phospholipids / blood. Physicochemical Phenomena. Viscosity

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  • (PMID = 8593283.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-3002
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochimica et biophysica acta
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochim. Biophys. Acta
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] NETHERLANDS
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Phospholipids; 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / Protoporphyrins; 0 / Pyrimidinones; 58823-12-4 / merocyanine dye
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6. Preston BN, Davies M, Ogston AG: The composition and physicochemical properties of hyaluronic acids prepared from ox synovial fluid and from a case of mesothelioma. Biochem J; 1965 Aug;96(2):449-74
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  • [Title] The composition and physicochemical properties of hyaluronic acids prepared from ox synovial fluid and from a case of mesothelioma.
  • The results, though consistent with a highly extended configuration, are not consistent with a linear random-coil configuration.
  • It is tentatively suggested that the structure may have some degree of branching and of cross-linking, which give it a rigidity with respect to expansion of the molecular domain that would not be possessed by a random coil.
  • 5. Acidification to approx. pH3 resulted in a contraction of the structure, with only a slight degree of expansion when the pH was restored to 6.8-7.0.
  • 8. Refractometric measurements have been made in connexion with light-scattering measurements, as the basis for a convenient method of determining the concentrations of solutions of hyaluronic acids, and to measure the partition of sodium chloride in dialysis experiments.
  • A spectrophotometric titration with cetylpyridinium bromide has been shown to give estimates of carboxyl groups that agree well with those of decarboxylation when applied to preparations of hyaluronic acid under suitable conditions; the results are not affected by the presence of protein.
  • 13. Analyses of preparations for total nitrogen, amino acids, total acetyl, glucuronic acid (by decarboxylation) and ash account for at least 95.7% of the dry weight in terms of N-acetylglucosaminyl, glucuronyl, protein and metal ions.
  • 15. The analytical results are interpreted as agreeing with the physicochemical measurements in suggesting a more complex structure, for at least some hyaluronic acids, than that of an alternate linear copolymer in random-coil configuration.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cattle. Chemistry, Physical. Dialysis. Glucuronates. Humans. In Vitro Techniques. Physicochemical Phenomena. Serum Albumin, Bovine. Sodium Chloride. Solutions. Surface Tension. Viscosity

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  • (PMID = 5837786.001).
  • [ISSN] 0264-6021
  • [Journal-full-title] The Biochemical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucuronates; 0 / Serum Albumin, Bovine; 0 / Solutions; 451W47IQ8X / Sodium Chloride; 9004-61-9 / Hyaluronic Acid
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1207059
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7. Chiou SH: Physicochemical characterization of a crystallin from the squid lens and its comparison with vertebrate lens crystallins. J Biochem; 1984 Jan;95(1):75-82
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  • [Title] Physicochemical characterization of a crystallin from the squid lens and its comparison with vertebrate lens crystallins.
  • A crystallin was isolated from the homogenate of the Squid (Loligo pealii) lens by gel filtration on a Sepharose CL-6B (2.5 X 170 cm) column.
  • [MeSH-minor] Amino Acids / isolation & purification. Animals. Cattle. Chemical Phenomena. Chemistry. Chemistry, Physical. Chromatography, Agarose. Electrophoresis / methods. Fishes. Physicochemical Phenomena. Species Specificity

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  • (PMID = 6706921.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-924X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] JAPAN
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Amino Acids; 0 / Crystallins
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8. Mizoguchi A, Ohshima Y, Endo Y: Microscopic hydration of the sodium chloride ion pair. J Am Chem Soc; 2003 Feb 19;125(7):1716-7
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  • [Title] Microscopic hydration of the sodium chloride ion pair.
  • Hydration of ion pairs is an essential process in various physicochemical phenomena occurring in solutions.
  • Isolated clusters of an ion pair solvated with finite number of waters have been considered as a model system for the critical evaluation of microscopic interactions involved in the process, and theoretical studies have contributed exclusively to the subject up to now.
  • Here we report the first experimental characterization of structure and internal dynamics of hydrated ion pairs, NaCl-(H2O)n (n = 1-3).
  • The measurements of their rotational spectra have proven that the clusters have cyclic forms, in which Na+ and Cl- ions are strongly interacted with the O and H atoms of the solvent molecules, respectively.
  • The Na-Cl distance shows a pronounced increase with the successive addition of water molecules.
  • The separation for n = 3 approaches the value predicted for the contact ion-pair state in aqueous solution by recent molecular dynamics simulations.
  • [MeSH-major] Sodium Chloride / chemistry. Water / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 12580594.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-7863
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Chemical Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Chem. Soc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anions; 0 / Cations, Monovalent; 0 / Solutions; 059QF0KO0R / Water; 451W47IQ8X / Sodium Chloride
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9. Jayaraman S, Verkman AS: Quenching mechanism of quinolinium-type chloride-sensitive fluorescent indicators. Biophys Chem; 2000 May 31;85(1):49-57
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  • [Title] Quenching mechanism of quinolinium-type chloride-sensitive fluorescent indicators.
  • Quinolinium based Cl- sensitive fluorescent indicators have been used extensively to measure intracellular Cl- activity.
  • Stern-Volmer plots for quenching by Cl-, Br-, SCN-, I-, F-, OAc- and CO3(2-) from both intensity and lifetime measurements were linear.
  • Understanding the mechanism facilitates structure-based predictions of the anion sensitivities of quinolinium indicators to design improved Cl- indicators with tailored properties.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorides / chemistry. Fluorescent Dyes / chemistry. Quinolinium Compounds / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemistry, Physical. Diffusion. Electrochemistry. Isoquinolines / chemistry. Physicochemical Phenomena. Spectrometry, Fluorescence

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  • (PMID = 10885398.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-4622
  • [Journal-full-title] Biophysical chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biophys. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK35124; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK43840; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL60288
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] NETHERLANDS
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chlorides; 0 / Fluorescent Dyes; 0 / Isoquinolines; 0 / Quinolinium Compounds
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10. Abezgauz L, Kuperkar K, Hassan PA, Ramon O, Bahadur P, Danino D: Effect of Hofmeister anions on micellization and micellar growth of the surfactant cetylpyridinium chloride. J Colloid Interface Sci; 2010 Feb 1;342(1):83-92
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  • [Title] Effect of Hofmeister anions on micellization and micellar growth of the surfactant cetylpyridinium chloride.
  • In this work we study how monovalent anions of the lyotropic series affect micellization, micellar transitions, and micellar growth of the cationic surfactant N-cetyl pyridinium chloride (CPyCl), with the aim of achieving a tool to methodically tune these self-assembly characteristics.
  • For the first time, a set of ions of the Hofmeister series were studied by combining indirect (surface tension, conductivity, optical absorption, viscosity, dynamic light scattering) and direct-imaging cryogenic-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM).
  • Following recent literature on anionic surfactants, we considered the pyridinium headgroup as a chaotropic cation, interacting with cosmotrope and chaotrope anions (Cl(-), Br(-), NO(3)(-), ClO(3)(-)).
  • Especially interesting was the relatively small effect of the chlorate ion on the CMC, but its large effect on micellar transition and growth.
  • [MeSH-major] Anions / chemistry. Cetylpyridinium / chemistry. Micelles. Surface-Active Agents / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Bromides / chemistry. Chlorates / chemistry. Cryoelectron Microscopy. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission. Nitrates / chemistry. Physicochemical Phenomena. Sodium Chloride / chemistry. Sodium Compounds / chemistry. Sodium Salicylate / chemistry. Surface Tension

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19939405.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-7103
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of colloid and interface science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Colloid Interface Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anions; 0 / Bromides; 0 / Chlorates; 0 / Micelles; 0 / Nitrates; 0 / Sodium Compounds; 0 / Surface-Active Agents; 451W47IQ8X / Sodium Chloride; 8M4L3H2ZVZ / sodium nitrate; CUB7JI0JV3 / Cetylpyridinium; LC1V549NOM / sodium bromide; T95DR77GMR / sodium chlorate; WIQ1H85SYP / Sodium Salicylate
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11. Feitosa E, Karlsson G, Edwards K: Unilamellar vesicles obtained by simply mixing dioctadecyldimethylammonium chloride and bromide with water. Chem Phys Lipids; 2006 Apr;140(1-2):66-74
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  • [Title] Unilamellar vesicles obtained by simply mixing dioctadecyldimethylammonium chloride and bromide with water.
  • Optically clear dispersions of dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide and chloride (DODAX, X = Br-, Cl-) in water can be obtained by simply mixing the amphiphiles at low concentrations (1 mM) and at a temperature safely above the gel to liquid crystalline phase transition temperature (Tm approximately 45-48 degrees C) of DODAX in water.
  • [MeSH-major] Membranes, Artificial. Quaternary Ammonium Compounds / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Absorption. Chemistry, Physical. Light. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission / methods. Phase Transition. Physicochemical Phenomena. Scattering, Radiation. Sensitivity and Specificity. Temperature. Water / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 16494856.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-3084
  • [Journal-full-title] Chemistry and physics of lipids
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chem. Phys. Lipids
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Membranes, Artificial; 0 / Quaternary Ammonium Compounds; 059QF0KO0R / Water; 251IW5I21C / dimethyldioctadecylammonium
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12. Braiman MS, Walter TJ, Briercheck DM: Infrared spectroscopic detection of light-induced change in chloride-arginine interaction in halorhodopsin. Biochemistry; 1994 Feb 22;33(7):1629-35
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  • [Title] Infrared spectroscopic detection of light-induced change in chloride-arginine interaction in halorhodopsin.
  • A light-induced transient change in the ionic interaction between chloride and arginine in the transmembrane anion pump halorhodopsin (hR) is detected with infrared absorption spectroscopy.
  • In the IR difference spectrum of hR and one of its photoproducts (hL), only a few bands have frequencies that depend on the particular halide ion (Cl-, Br-, or I-) present.
  • We conclude that a halide-arginine ion pair is present in the hR state; this interaction appears to be disrupted by photoconversion to hL.
  • [MeSH-major] Arginine / chemistry. Bacteriorhodopsins / chemistry. Chlorides / chemistry. Light. Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared
  • [MeSH-minor] Anions. Bromides / pharmacology. Chemistry, Physical. Electrochemistry. Guanidine. Guanidines / chemistry. Halorhodopsins. Iodides / pharmacology. Models, Molecular. Physicochemical Phenomena

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  • (PMID = 8110765.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-2960
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochemistry
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM46851
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anions; 0 / Bromides; 0 / Chlorides; 0 / Guanidines; 0 / Halorhodopsins; 0 / Iodides; 53026-44-1 / Bacteriorhodopsins; 94ZLA3W45F / Arginine; JU58VJ6Y3B / Guanidine
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13. Ruttink PJ, Terlouw JK, Luider TM, Burgers PC: Structure and dissociation characteristics of metal chloride anion clusters containing redox-active metal ions studied by laser desorption and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and ab initio calculations. J Mass Spectrom; 2011 Feb;46(2):223-9
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  • [Title] Structure and dissociation characteristics of metal chloride anion clusters containing redox-active metal ions studied by laser desorption and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and ab initio calculations.
  • Copper chloride anion clusters with both copper oxidation states can be made by laser desorption of CuCl(2) crystals.
  • We have used this method to study the dissociation characteristics of such cluster ions.
  • Thus, for the Cu(2)Cl(4) dimer anion, formally [ClCu-Cl-CuCl(2)](-) , with putative mixed copper oxidation states, the two copper ions become equivalent through bridging.
  • Such bridging does not occur when redox inactive metal ions are present as in [ClCu-Cl-CaCl(2)](-) .
  • By observing the dissociation characteristics of a variety of metal chloride cluster anions produced from binary mixtures, the following Cl(-) affinity order is obtained: FeCl(3) > CuCl > CaCl(2) > FeCl(2) > AgCl ≈ CuCl(2) ≈ ZnCl(2) > LiCl.
  • Ab initio calculations on the Cl(-) affinity of selected chlorides confirm this order as do Cl(-) affinity estimates from the experimentally known vertical electron detachment energies of the superhalogens CaCl(3)(-) and LiCl(2)(-) .
  • An equimolar mixture of CuCl(2) and FeCl(3) produces an intense cluster ion, which, from (65)Cu labeling experiments, is best described as FeCl(4)(-)···Cu(+)···(-)Cl(4) Fe, a Cu(+) bound superhalogen FeCl(4)(-) dimer.
  • The Cu(+) ion can be replaced by the redox inactive alkali cations and by Ag(+) but these metal ion bound FeCl(4)(-) dimers show an entirely different fragmentation behavior which is attributed to the absence of bridging.
  • Electrospray ionization (ESI) of CuCl(2) produces an extended series of (CuCl(2))(n) Cl(-) anions (n = 1-11) and so in ESI very limited reduction of Cu(2+) takes place.
  • The (CuCl(2))(n) Cl(-) anions show an abundant dissociation via loss of neutral Cu(2)Cl(4) which according to our ab initio calculations is 9 kcal/mol more stable than two CuCl(2).
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorides / chemistry. Copper / chemistry. Metals / chemistry. Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization / methods. Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Anions / chemistry. Oxidation-Reduction. Physicochemical Phenomena

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 21259398.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9888
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of mass spectrometry : JMS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Mass Spectrom
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anions; 0 / Chlorides; 0 / Metals; 789U1901C5 / Copper; C955P95064 / cuprous chloride
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14. Garza-Ortiz A, den Dulk H, Brouwer J, Kooijman H, Spek AL, Reedijk J: The synthesis, chemical and biological properties of dichlorido(azpy)gold(III) chloride (azpy=2-(phenylazo)pyridine) and the gold-induced conversion of the azpy ligand to the chloride of the novel tricyclic pyrido[2,1-c][1,2,4]benzotriazin-11-ium cation. J Inorg Biochem; 2007 Nov;101(11-12):1922-30
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  • [Title] The synthesis, chemical and biological properties of dichlorido(azpy)gold(III) chloride (azpy=2-(phenylazo)pyridine) and the gold-induced conversion of the azpy ligand to the chloride of the novel tricyclic pyrido[2,1-c][1,2,4]benzotriazin-11-ium cation.
  • The chemical stability of the cation in this compound, [Au(azpy)Cl(2)](+) (abbreviated: Au-azpy), was analyzed by means of several physicochemical methods.
  • A cationic organic derivative of 2-(phenylazo)pyridine, (abbreviated: pyrium), was produced from the solution and has been isolated as its chloride salt and characterized by crystal structure determination, elemental analysis, NMR, ESI-MS and conductivity studies in solution.
  • The Au adduct and the pyrium cation were investigated as potential cytotoxic and anticancer agents, and both show moderate to high cytotoxic properties in cisplatin-sensitive and cisplatin-resistant ovarian carcinoma cell lines, A2780; and cisplatin-sensitive and cisplatin-resistant murine lymphocytic leukemia cell lines, L1210.
  • Significant anticancer activity against the cisplatin resistant cell lines was found for the pyrium salt, ruling out the occurrence of cross resistance phenomena.
  • [MeSH-major] Gold / chemistry. Organogold Compounds / chemical synthesis. Pyridines / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 17637477.001).
  • [ISSN] 0162-0134
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of inorganic biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Inorg. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Organogold Compounds; 0 / Pyridines; 7440-57-5 / Gold; NH9L3PP67S / pyridine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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15. Gough BM, Whitehouse ME, Greenwood CT: The role and function of chlorine in the preparation of high-ratio cake flour. CRC Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr; 1978;10(1):91-113
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  • [Title] The role and function of chlorine in the preparation of high-ratio cake flour.
  • The literature on the role of chlorine treatment of flour for use in high-ratio cake production is discussed in relation to current knowledge of cereal chemistry and cake technology.
  • A brief perspective of the present use of chlorine in high-ratio cake flours is included.
  • Investigations of the uptake of gaseous chlorine by flour and its distribution among and chemical action upon the major flour components (water, protein, lipid, and carbohydrate) are assessed.
  • The physical effects of chlorination as demonstrated by experiments with batters and cakes and by physicochemical observations of flour and its fractions are also considered.
  • The characteristics of the starch in flour appear to be critical in high-ratio cakes.
  • Chlorine treatment modifies the gelatinization behavior of the starch granules yet does not change their gelatinization temperature not is there evidence of chemical attack upon the starch molecules.
  • Therefore, it is suggested that chlorine effects the necessary changes in starch behavior by reacting with the noncarbohydrate surface contaminants on the granules.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine. Flour. Triticum
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemical Phenomena. Chemistry. Cooking / standards. Fats. Food Technology. Hot Temperature. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Polysaccharides. Starch. Viscosity. Zea mays

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  • (PMID = 31265.001).
  • [ISSN] 0099-0248
  • [Journal-full-title] CRC critical reviews in food science and nutrition
  • [ISO-abbreviation] CRC Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fats; 0 / Polysaccharides; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; 9005-25-8 / Starch
  • [Number-of-references] 92
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16. Yoshimoto M, Tanimura K, Tokunaga K, Kamimura A: Hydrolysis of insoluble cellulose to glucose catalyzed by cellulase-containing liposomes in an aqueous solution of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride. Biotechnol Prog; 2013 Sep-Oct;29(5):1190-6
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  • [Title] Hydrolysis of insoluble cellulose to glucose catalyzed by cellulase-containing liposomes in an aqueous solution of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride.
  • The liposomal cellulase and free enzyme were examined in their hydrolytic activities to insoluble cellulose powder CC31 in the acetate buffer solution (pH 4.8) of 15 w/w% [Bmim][Cl] (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride).
  • The free cellulase was deactivated more rapidly than the liposomal cellulase in catalyzing the hydrolysis of 2.0 g/l CC31 at 45°C in the presence of [Bmim][Cl] for 48 h.
  • The activities of liposomal and free cellulase to cellobiose as soluble substrate were less susceptible to [Bmim][Cl] than their cellulolytic activities to CC31, meaning that β-glucosidase is relatively stable among the three enzyme components of cellulase.
  • The rate of glucose production could be appreciably improved by the pretreatment of CC31 with [Bmim][Cl] alone at 120°C for 30 min followed by the liposomal cellulase-catalyzed hydrolysis of the substrate at 45°C at the [Bmim][Cl] concentration of 15 w/w%.
  • [MeSH-major] Cellulase / metabolism. Cellulose / chemistry. Glucose / chemistry. Imidazoles / chemistry. Liposomes / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Cellobiose / metabolism. Hydrolysis. Industrial Microbiology. Physicochemical Phenomena. Trichoderma / enzymology. beta-Glucosidase / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.
  • (PMID = 23813807.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-6033
  • [Journal-full-title] Biotechnology progress
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biotechnol. Prog.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride; 0 / Imidazoles; 0 / Liposomes; 16462-44-5 / Cellobiose; 9004-34-6 / Cellulose; EC 3.2.1.21 / beta-Glucosidase; EC 3.2.1.4 / Cellulase; IY9XDZ35W2 / Glucose
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; cellulase / hydrolysis / insoluble cellulose / ionic liquid / liposomes
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17. Badawi HM: Vibrational analyses of sulfamoyl halides NH2SO2X (X is F, Cl and Br). Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc; 2006 Oct;65(2):453-8
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  • [Title] Vibrational analyses of sulfamoyl halides NH2SO2X (X is F, Cl and Br).
  • The structural stability of sulfamoyl halides NH(2)-SO(2)X (X is F, Cl and Br) were investigated by DFT-B3LYP/6-311+G** and ab initio MP2/6-311+G** calculations.
  • [MeSH-major] Mafenide / analogs & derivatives. Mafenide / chemistry. Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared. Spectrum Analysis, Raman
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemistry, Physical. Molecular Conformation. Normal Distribution. Physicochemical Phenomena. Quantum Theory. Vibration

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  • (PMID = 16530000.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-1425
  • [Journal-full-title] Spectrochimica acta. Part A, Molecular and biomolecular spectroscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 58447S8P4L / Mafenide
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18. Boumaiza M: [The limnology of Tunisia: physicochemical study]. Arch Inst Pasteur Tunis; 1984 Jun-Sep;61(2-3):205-46
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  • [Title] [The limnology of Tunisia: physicochemical study].
  • [Transliterated title] Contribution à la limnologie de la Tunisie: étude physico-chimique.
  • Several chemical and physical parameters are measured in forty seven stations, distributed on the most part of the hydrographic systems of Tunisia.
  • Some parameters: temperature of the water (T), salinity (S, electric conductivity (CE), chloride (Cl-), total hardness (DT) and turbidity (TUR) show great variations in the Northern hydrographic systems.
  • In these systems, the parameters (S, CE, Cl-, DT) are generally elevated in the tributaries of the south bank of the Medjerda, the North-East streams, Melah and Tine Streams which flow in the Ichkeul lake.
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemistry, Physical. Chlorides / analysis. Electric Conductivity. Minerals / analysis. Physicochemical Phenomena. Temperature. Tunisia

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  • (PMID = 6544054.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-2509
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives de l'Institut Pasteur de Tunis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Inst Pasteur Tunis
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] TUNISIA
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chlorides; 0 / Minerals
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19. Shemanova GF, Petrov RV, Dmitrieva LN, Panteleev EI, Drachev VA: [Homogeneous Cl. perfringens alpha-anatoxin: its physicochemical and immunogenic properties]. Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol; 1978 May;(5):117-22
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  • [Title] [Homogeneous Cl. perfringens alpha-anatoxin: its physicochemical and immunogenic properties].
  • [Transliterated title] Gomogennyĭ al'fa-anatoksin C1. perfringens: ego fiziko-khimicheskie i immunogennye svoĭstva.
  • The authors present a method of obtaining relatively homogeneous preparations of alpha-toxoid of Cl. perfringens, type A, including the primary conception of the alpha-toxin proteins, their chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, fractionation with (NH4)2SO4, detoxication, with the subsequent gel-filtration through sephadex and isoelectric focussing.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Chemistry, Physical. Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel. Guinea Pigs. Immunization. Immunization, Secondary. Isoelectric Focusing. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Mice, Inbred CBA. Physicochemical Phenomena. Rabbits. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 208330.001).
  • [ISSN] 0372-9311
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhurnal mikrobiologii, epidemiologii, i immunobiologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zh. Mikrobiol. Epidemiol. Immunobiol.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] USSR
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Toxoids
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20. Do VT, Tang CY, Reinhard M, Leckie JO: Effects of chlorine exposure conditions on physiochemical properties and performance of a polyamide membrane--mechanisms and implications. Environ Sci Technol; 2012 Dec 18;46(24):13184-92
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  • [Title] Effects of chlorine exposure conditions on physiochemical properties and performance of a polyamide membrane--mechanisms and implications.
  • Understanding the effects of chlorine exposure on polyamide (PA) based membranes is essential in membrane lifespan improvement.
  • The changes in membrane elemental composition and bonding chemistry obtained from XPS and ATR-FTIR revealed the impacts of two competing mechanisms: N-chlorination and chlorination-promoted hydrolysis.
  • More chlorine was incorporated into the PA matrix at pH <7, at which HOCl is dominant, while chlorine-promoted hydrolysis was more favorable at pH >7 with abundant hydroxyl groups.
  • However, when hydrolysis was severe (≥ 1000 ppm, pH 7 and 9), the enhanced charge repulsion effect could not compensate for the extensive amide bond cleavage, resulting in declined rejection.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine / chemistry. Membranes, Artificial. Nylons / chemistry. Physicochemical Phenomena
  • [MeSH-minor] Calcium / chemistry. Cations. Filtration. Halogenation. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Hydrolysis. Nanotechnology. Nitrogen / analysis. Oxygen / analysis. Permeability. Sodium Chloride / chemistry. Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared. Surface Properties. Time Factors. Water / chemistry. Water Pollutants, Chemical / analysis

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  • (PMID = 23214945.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-5851
  • [Journal-full-title] Environmental science & technology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Environ. Sci. Technol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cations; 0 / Membranes, Artificial; 0 / Nylons; 0 / Water Pollutants, Chemical; 059QF0KO0R / Water; 451W47IQ8X / Sodium Chloride; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; N762921K75 / Nitrogen; S88TT14065 / Oxygen; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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21. Roughley PJ, Hatt M, Mason RM: Physicochemical properties of cartilage proteoglycans extracted by lanthanum chloride. Biochim Biophys Acta; 1978 Apr 3;539(4):445-58
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  • [Title] Physicochemical properties of cartilage proteoglycans extracted by lanthanum chloride.
  • The properties of PLaCl3 were investigated by chemical analysis, electrophoresis, viscometry and analytical ultracentrifugation, and the results compared with those for proteoglycan obtained by caesium chloride density gradient centrifugation of 2 M CaCl2 cartilage extracts.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Calcium Chloride. Cattle. Chemistry, Physical. Chlorides. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Nose. Physicochemical Phenomena. Viscosity

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  • (PMID = 25090.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-3002
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochimica et biophysica acta
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochim. Biophys. Acta
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] NETHERLANDS
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chlorides; 0 / Proteoglycans; 6I3K30563S / Lanthanum; M4I0D6VV5M / Calcium Chloride
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22. Berth G, Dautzenberg H, Christensen BE, Rother G, Smidsrød O: Physicochemical studies on xylinan (acetan). I. Characterization by gel permeation chromatography on sepharose Cl-2B coupled with static light scattering and viscometry. Biopolymers; 1996 Nov;39(5):709-19
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  • [Title] Physicochemical studies on xylinan (acetan). I. Characterization by gel permeation chromatography on sepharose Cl-2B coupled with static light scattering and viscometry.
  • Laboratory-made samples of the polysaccharide xylinan (acetan) were fractionated on Sepharose Cl-2B using 0.1M NaCl as eluant.
  • The experimental data is found to be consistent with a persistence length of Lp = 100 nm.
  • Our results suggest a fractionation according to the contour length rather than the molar mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Polysaccharides, Bacterial / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Acetobacter / chemistry. Biopolymers / chemistry. Carbohydrate Sequence. Chemistry, Physical. Chromatography, Agarose. Light. Molecular Sequence Data. Physicochemical Phenomena. Scattering, Radiation. Viscosity

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  • (PMID = 8875824.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-3525
  • [Journal-full-title] Biopolymers
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biopolymers
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biopolymers; 0 / Polysaccharides, Bacterial; 107853-49-6 / xylinan
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23. Yeeprae W, Kawakami S, Suzuki S, Yamashita F, Hashida M: Physicochemical and pharmacokinetic characteristics of cationic liposomes. Pharmazie; 2006 Feb;61(2):102-5
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  • [Title] Physicochemical and pharmacokinetic characteristics of cationic liposomes.
  • After intravenous administration of plasmid DNA (pDNA)/cationic liposome complexes, the gene expression is predominantly observed in the lung due to the physicochemical properties of the liposome complexes and the physiology of the lung.
  • To determine the physicochemical properties and distribution behavior of cationic liposomes for lung-selective drug and/or gene delivery systems, N-[1-(2,3-dioleyloxy)propyl]-n,n,n-trimethylammonium chloride (DOTMA)/cholesterol and 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethyl-ammoniopropane (DOTAP)/cholesterol liposomes were studied.
  • The distribution characteristics of DOTMA/cholesterol and DOTAP/cholesterol liposomes were almost identical due to the similarities in their physicochemical properties.
  • [MeSH-major] Drug Carriers / chemistry. Drug Carriers / pharmacokinetics. Liposomes / chemistry. Liposomes / pharmacokinetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Area Under Curve. Chemistry, Physical. Cholesterol / chemistry. Drug Delivery Systems. Electrochemistry. Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated. Female. Mice. Mice, Inbred ICR. Particle Size. Physicochemical Phenomena. Quaternary Ammonium Compounds

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  • (PMID = 16526555.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-7144
  • [Journal-full-title] Die Pharmazie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pharmazie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated; 0 / Liposomes; 0 / Quaternary Ammonium Compounds; 104162-48-3 / N-(1-(2,3-dioleyloxy)propyl)-N,N,N-trimethylammonium; 113669-21-9 / 1,2-dioleoyloxy-3-(trimethylammonium)propane; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol
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24. Gaudreault J, Varin F, Pollack GM: Pharmacokinetics and anticonvulsant effect of a new hypnotic, CL 284,846, in rats. Pharm Res; 1995 Nov;12(11):1592-7
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  • [Title] Pharmacokinetics and anticonvulsant effect of a new hypnotic, CL 284,846, in rats.
  • PURPOSE: CL 284,846 (CL846) is an investigational non-benzodiazepine agent with hypnotic, anxiolytic, myorelaxant and anticonvulsant properties.
  • CL846 and the derived metabolite CL 284,859 (CL859) concentrations in serum and brain tissue were determined by HPLC with fluorescence detection.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biotransformation. Brain / metabolism. Chemistry, Physical. Female. Infusions, Intravenous. Pentylenetetrazole / antagonists & inhibitors. Physicochemical Phenomena. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Solubility. Structure-Activity Relationship

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  • (PMID = 8592655.001).
  • [ISSN] 0724-8741
  • [Journal-full-title] Pharmaceutical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pharm. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acetamides; 0 / Anticonvulsants; 0 / Hypnotics and Sedatives; 0 / Pyrimidines; 151319-34-5 / zaleplon; WM5Z385K7T / Pentylenetetrazole
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25. Kuroda R, Shinomiya M: Structures of new DNA photocleaving agents: 3,6-bis(dimethylamino)-10- [6-(4-nitrobenzoyloxy)hexyl]acridinium chloride (I) and 9-([6-(4- nitrobenzoyloxy)-hexyl]amino)acridinium chloride monohydrate (II). Acta Crystallogr C; 1992 Mar 15;48 ( Pt 3):512-5
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  • [Title] Structures of new DNA photocleaving agents: 3,6-bis(dimethylamino)-10- [6-(4-nitrobenzoyloxy)hexyl]acridinium chloride (I) and 9-([6-(4- nitrobenzoyloxy)-hexyl]amino)acridinium chloride monohydrate (II).
  • (I) C30H35N4O4+.Cl-, Mr = 551.07, triclinic, P1, a = 10.512 (2), b = 11.203 (2), c = 14.469 (2) A, alpha = 111.49 (1), beta = 105.74 (1), gamma = 95.82 (1) degrees, V = 1487.4 (4) A3, Z = 2, Dm = 1.23 (by flotation), Dx = 1.231 g cm-3, lambda(Cu K alpha) = 1.5418 A, mu = 14.68 cm-1, F(000) = 584, T = 296 K, R = 0.109 for 3100 unique reflections with I greater than 3 sigma(I). (II) C26H26N3O4+.Cl-.H2O, Mr = 497.98, triclinic, P1, a = 9.4810 (8), b = 14.495 (2), c = 9.255 (1) A, alpha = 95.48 (1), beta = 98.17 (1), gamma = 101.78 (1) degrees, V = 1222.3 (5) A3, Z = 2, Dm = 1.35 (by flotation), Dx = 1.353 g cm-3, lambda(Cu K alpha) = 1.5418 A, mu = 17.34 cm-1, F(000) = 524, T = 296 K, R = 0.052 for 3589 unique reflections with I greater than 3 sigma(I).
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoacridines / chemistry. DNA / metabolism. Nitrobenzoates / chemistry. Proflavine / analogs & derivatives. Ultraviolet Rays
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemistry, Physical. Crystallization. Molecular Structure. Photochemistry. Physicochemical Phenomena. X-Ray Diffraction

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  • (PMID = 1610529.001).
  • [ISSN] 0108-2701
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta crystallographica. Section C, Crystal structure communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Crystallogr C
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] DENMARK
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoacridines; 0 / Nitrobenzoates; 140866-76-8 / 3,6-bis(dimethylamino)-10-(6-(4-nitrobenzoyloxy)hexyl)acridinium; 140866-77-9 / 9-((6-(4-nitrobenzoyloxy)hexyl)amino)acridine; 9007-49-2 / DNA; CY3RNB3K4T / Proflavine
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26. Jones DS, McGovern JG, Woolfson AD, Adair CG, Gorman SP: Physicochemical characterization of hexetidine-impregnated endotracheal tube poly(vinyl chloride) and resistance to adherence of respiratory bacterial pathogens. Pharm Res; 2002 Jun;19(6):818-24
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  • [Title] Physicochemical characterization of hexetidine-impregnated endotracheal tube poly(vinyl chloride) and resistance to adherence of respiratory bacterial pathogens.
  • This study describes the physicochemical properties of hexetidine-impregnated poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) endotracheal tube (ET) biomaterials and their resistance to microbial adherence (Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa).
  • Increasing the concentration of hexetidine from 1% to 10% (w/w) (but not from 10% to 20% w/w) increased the subsequent rate of drug release.
  • CONCLUSIONS: ET PVC containing 1% (w/w) hexetidine offered an appropriate balance between suitable physicochemical properties and resistance to microbial adherence.
  • [MeSH-major] Bacterial Adhesion. Hexetidine / pharmacokinetics. Intubation, Intratracheal. Polyvinyl Chloride / pharmacokinetics. Pseudomonas aeruginosa / drug effects. Staphylococcus aureus / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Analysis of Variance. Biofilms / drug effects. Biofilms / growth & development. Chemistry, Physical. Drug Resistance / physiology. Humans. Physicochemical Phenomena. Pneumonia, Bacterial / prevention & control. Respiratory Tract Infections / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 12134952.001).
  • [ISSN] 0724-8741
  • [Journal-full-title] Pharmaceutical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pharm. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 852A84Y8LS / Hexetidine; 9002-86-2 / Polyvinyl Chloride
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27. Dyke PH, Sutton M, Wood D, Marshall J: Investigations on the effect of chlorine in lubricating oil and the presence of a diesel oxidation catalyst on PCDD/F releases from an internal combustion engine. Chemosphere; 2007 Apr;67(7):1275-86
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  • [Title] Investigations on the effect of chlorine in lubricating oil and the presence of a diesel oxidation catalyst on PCDD/F releases from an internal combustion engine.
  • This paper reports on an intensive study into releases of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated furans (PCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) from a diesel engine and the analysis of PCDD/F and PCB in crankcase lubricating oil.
  • Experimental conditions were set and carefully controlled in order to maximize the possible impact of, and our ability to measure the effect of, changes in the levels of chlorine in the lubricant.
  • A series of 40 experimental runs were completed using three reference lubricants formulated to have three levels of chlorine present as a residual component (at levels of 12, 131 and 259 mg kg(-1) or ppm).
  • All lubricants were realistic oils and the use of unrealistic additives or doping of components - particularly chlorine - in the fuel and lubricant was carefully avoided.
  • The testing demonstrated the need for extreme care to be taken in developing measurement methods that are sufficiently sensitive for measuring chlorine content of fluids and PCDD/F in oils, the latter being particularly challenging.
  • The results of this testing showed that the emissions of PCDD/F were greatly reduced by the presence of a diesel oxidation catalyst in the exhaust, a finding that has not been explicitly tested in previous work.
  • They also show that emissions from the engine were not controlled by the level of chlorine in the lubricant and that emissions did not change in response to a much greater step change in the total chlorine entering the combustion chamber due to a change in the level of chlorine in the fuel.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorine / analysis. Gasoline / analysis. Gasoline / toxicity. Industrial Oils / analysis. Industrial Oils / toxicity. Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin / analogs & derivatives. Vehicle Emissions / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Catalysis. Chemistry, Physical. Chromatography, Ion Exchange. Dioxins / analysis. Environmental Pollutants / analysis. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Lubrication. Neutron Activation Analysis. Oxidation-Reduction. Physicochemical Phenomena. Polychlorinated Biphenyls / analysis. Quality Control

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  • (PMID = 17254630.001).
  • [ISSN] 0045-6535
  • [Journal-full-title] Chemosphere
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chemosphere
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dioxins; 0 / Environmental Pollutants; 0 / Gasoline; 0 / Vehicle Emissions; 0 / polychlorodibenzo-4-dioxin; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; DFC2HB4I0K / Polychlorinated Biphenyls; DO80M48B6O / Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin
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28. Bruckmaier RM, Weiss D, Wiedemann M, Schmitz S, Wendl G: Changes of physicochemical indicators during mastitis and the effects of milk ejection on their sensitivity. J Dairy Res; 2004 Aug;71(3):316-21
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  • [Title] Changes of physicochemical indicators during mastitis and the effects of milk ejection on their sensitivity.
  • We examined the relationship between physicochemical indicators and somatic cells in the milk of dairy cows during experimentally induced mastitis and their significance as indicators for use in controlling udder health.
  • In Expt 1, Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (Esch. coli LPS) was injected into the left rear quarter to induce an inflammatory reaction in one quarter in each of six cows.
  • Samples were analysed for SCC, electrical conductivity (EC) and Na+ and Cl- concentrations.
  • During the experimental inflammation SCC, EC, Na+ and Cl- peaked at 12 h from LPS administration and values in treated quarters (T) at this time were elevated to 7900, 157, 501 and 169% of the values in untreated quarters, respectively.
  • In Expt 2, SCC, EC, Na+ and Cl- in high SCC quarters were 2520, 121, 283 and 141% of low SCC quarters at the start of stimulation (t=0 s), respectively.
  • Highly significant (P<0.001) differences in EC, Na+ and Cl- between high and low SCC quarters disappeared owing to the onset of alveolar milk ejection 100 s after the first contact with the teat.
  • EC, Na+ or Cl- were useful tools only if the measurements were performed in cisternal milk before the start of alveolar milk ejection.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biomarkers. Cell Count. Chemistry, Physical. Chlorides / analysis. Electric Conductivity. Escherichia coli. Female. Kinetics. Lipopolysaccharides / administration & dosage. Milk / cytology. Physicochemical Phenomena. Sensitivity and Specificity. Sodium / analysis

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  • (PMID = 15354578.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-0299
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dairy research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dairy Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Chlorides; 0 / Lipopolysaccharides; 9NEZ333N27 / Sodium
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29. Li XH, Lah MS, Pecoraro VL: Structural characterization of the manganese(IV) Schiff-base complex MnIV(5-Cl-SALAHP)2. Acta Crystallogr C; 1989 Oct 15;45 ( Pt 10):1517-9
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  • [Title] Structural characterization of the manganese(IV) Schiff-base complex MnIV(5-Cl-SALAHP)2.
  • The title complex MnIV(5-Cl-SALAHP)2 [5-Cl-SALAHP = 3-(5-chlorosalicylideneamino)propanolato] displays a regular octahedral geometry.
  • The 5-Cl-SALAHP ligand is tridentate, forming a meridional chelate with one phenolato oxygen (Mn-Oavg = 1.90 A), one alkoxide oxygen (Mn-Oavg = 1.85 A) and one imine nitrogen (Mn-Navg = 2.02 A) coordinated to the metal.
  • Previous studies have shown that MnIV(5-Cl-SALAHP)2 displays a rhombic EPR spectrum with well-resolved 55Mn hyperfine structure on gx, gy and gz.
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemistry, Physical. Molecular Conformation. Physicochemical Phenomena. Schiff Bases. Temperature. X-Ray Diffraction

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  • (PMID = 2610956.001).
  • [ISSN] 0108-2701
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta crystallographica. Section C, Crystal structure communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Crystallogr C
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM39406
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] DENMARK
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organometallic Compounds; 0 / Schiff Bases; 124430-02-0 / bis(3-(5-chlorosalicylideneamino)propanolato-O,N-O')manganese(IV)
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30. Meissner T, Eisenbeiss F, Jastorff B: New leading electrolyte for the direct determination of chloride and other anions in analytical isotachophoresis. J Chromatogr A; 1999 Apr 9;838(1-2):81-8
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  • [Title] New leading electrolyte for the direct determination of chloride and other anions in analytical isotachophoresis.
  • In a number of experiments it was shown that the dithionate ion possesses a higher effective mobility than the chloride ion in aqueous solution, thus enabling the direct and simultaneous isotachophoretic determination of chloride and other anions.
  • Based on this pKa value, theoretical calculations and the experimentally observed effective mobility of the dithionate ion indicate a higher effective mobility compared to the chloride ion from pH 3.
  • Taking into account the physico-chemical properties of the dithionate, its unrestricted use as isotachophoretic leading ion was confirmed.
  • Based on the dithionate ion, new electrolyte systems for the determination of chloride were used.
  • One system was optimised for the determination of chloride and other low-molecular-mass anions and applied to the analysis of waste water and drinking water.
  • The water samples were analysed in parallel by ion chromatography and compared with the isotachophoretic results.
  • [MeSH-minor] Calcium. Chemistry, Physical. Drug Stability. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Indicators and Reagents. Magnesium. Molecular Weight. Physicochemical Phenomena. Solutions. Water / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 10327633.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9673
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of chromatography. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chromatogr A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] NETHERLANDS
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anions; 0 / Chlorides; 0 / Indicators and Reagents; 0 / Solutions; 0 / Sulfates; 059QF0KO0R / Water; I38ZP9992A / Magnesium; RPF7Z41GAW / sodium dithionate; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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31. Scouten WH, van den Tweel W, Delhaes D, Kranenberg H, Dekker M: Sulfonyl chloride activation of hydroxylic materials. J Chromatogr; 1986 Apr 11;376:289-98
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  • [Title] Sulfonyl chloride activation of hydroxylic materials.
  • The primary basis for development of such reagents has been pentafluorobenzenesulfonyl chloride and tresyl chloride, both of which are excellent activating agents.
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemistry, Physical. Chromatography, Affinity. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Ligands. Physicochemical Phenomena

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  • (PMID = 3711196.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of chromatography
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Chromatogr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] NETHERLANDS
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ligands; 0 / Sulfinic Acids; 7791-25-5 / sulfonyl chloride
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32. Kavanaugh JS, Rogers PH, Case DA, Arnone A: High-resolution X-ray study of deoxyhemoglobin Rothschild 37 beta Trp----Arg: a mutation that creates an intersubunit chloride-binding site. Biochemistry; 1992 Apr 28;31(16):4111-21
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  • [Title] High-resolution X-ray study of deoxyhemoglobin Rothschild 37 beta Trp----Arg: a mutation that creates an intersubunit chloride-binding site.
  • The mutation site in hemoglobin Rothschild (37 beta Trp----Arg) is located in the "hinge region" of the alpha 1 beta 2 interface, a region that is critical for normal hemoglobin function.
  • 82, 243-246]. Crystal were grown under "low-salt" conditions [100 mM Cl- in 10 mM phosphate buffer at pH 7.0 with poly(ethylene glycol) as a precipitating agent].
  • Chloride binds at this site as a counterion for Arg 37 beta.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorides / metabolism. Hemoglobins / chemistry. Hemoglobins, Abnormal / chemistry. Mutation
  • [MeSH-minor] Anions. Binding Sites. Chemistry, Physical. Crystallization. Humans. Hydrogen Bonding. Macromolecular Substances. Molecular Structure. Physicochemical Phenomena. Protein Conformation. X-Ray Diffraction

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  • (PMID = 1567857.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-2960
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochemistry
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM-40852; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL-40453
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anions; 0 / Chlorides; 0 / Hemoglobins; 0 / Hemoglobins, Abnormal; 0 / Macromolecular Substances; 65278-15-1 / hemoglobin Rothschild; 9008-02-0 / deoxyhemoglobin
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33. Wedekind D, Schweitzer-Stenner R, Dreybrodt W: Heme-apoprotein interaction in the modified oxyhemoglobin-bis(N-maleimidomethyl)ether and in oxyhemoglobin at high Cl-concentration detected by resonance Raman scattering. Biochim Biophys Acta; 1985 Aug 23;830(3):224-32
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  • [Title] Heme-apoprotein interaction in the modified oxyhemoglobin-bis(N-maleimidomethyl)ether and in oxyhemoglobin at high Cl-concentration detected by resonance Raman scattering.
  • The dispersion of the depolarization ratio of oxidation and spin-marker lines of oxyhemoglobin-bis(N-maleimidomethyl)ether and oxyhemoglobin at high Cl- concentration (1 M) have been examined for different pH values in the neutral and alkaline regions.
  • The oxidation marker line at 1375 cm-1 shows no pH-dependence in the physiological region for oxyHb-bis(N-maleimidomethyl)ether and a comparatively small variation for oxyHb at a Cl- concentration higher than 0.4 M.
  • The spin-marker line at 1638 cm-1 exhibits a strong pH-dependence of depolarization ratio for high Cl- concentration, but a minor pH-induced variation for oxyHb-bis(N-maleimidomethyl)ether.
  • (1) The oxidation marker line monitors symmetry-lowering distortions of the heme group introduced by central coupling to the protein via the Fe-N bond, whereas the spin-marker line monitors peripheral coupling due to heme-protein interaction in the heme pocket. (2) At low Cl- concentrations (below 0.3 M) both types of coupling are present.
  • These are induced by the salt bridge between His 146 beta and Asp94 beta and flexibility of the FG corner. (3) At high Cl- concentrations the salt bridge is missing, eliminating central coupling. (4) In oxyhemoglobin-bis(N-maleimidomethyl)ether, due to constraint of the bis(N-maleimidomethyl)ether bridging the FG corner and eliminating its flexibility and the missing salt bridge, both central and peripheral coupling are drastically reduced.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chemistry, Physical. Humans. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Oxidation-Reduction. Physicochemical Phenomena. Spectrum Analysis, Raman

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  • (PMID = 4027250.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-3002
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochimica et biophysica acta
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochim. Biophys. Acta
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] NETHERLANDS
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Apoproteins; 0 / Chlorides; 0 / Oxyhemoglobins; 42VZT0U6YR / Heme
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34. Naumov P, Anastasova F: Experimental and theoretical vibrational study of isatin, its 5-(NO2, F, Cl, Br, I, CH3) analogues and the isatinato anion. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc; 2001 Mar 1;57(3):469-81
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  • [Title] Experimental and theoretical vibrational study of isatin, its 5-(NO2, F, Cl, Br, I, CH3) analogues and the isatinato anion.
  • Effects of 5-R substitution (R = NO2, F, Cl, Br, I, CH3) and N-deprotonation on the 4000-400 cm(-1) region of the low temperature FT IR spectrum and the molecular structure of solid isatin are investigated.
  • Theoretical v(CO) frequency of isatin is lowered for about 180 cm(-1) upon conversion into isatinato ion.
  • [MeSH-major] Halogens / chemistry. Isatin / analogs & derivatives. Isatin / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemistry, Physical. Molecular Structure. Physicochemical Phenomena. Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared

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  • (PMID = 11300558.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-1425
  • [Journal-full-title] Spectrochimica acta. Part A, Molecular and biomolecular spectroscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Halogens; 82X95S7M06 / Isatin
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35. Kim Y, Cuff GW, Morris RM: Effect of chloride ion on the sedimentation volume and zeta potential of zinc insulin suspensions in neutral pH range. J Pharm Sci; 1995 Jun;84(6):755-9
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  • [Title] Effect of chloride ion on the sedimentation volume and zeta potential of zinc insulin suspensions in neutral pH range.
  • When zinc insulin suspensions of different pH values were prepared in the presence of sodium chloride, an unusually high sedimentation volume was found at about pH 6.9.
  • An experimental investigation was conducted in an effort to understand this phenomenon.
  • The experiments involved measurements of electrophoretic mobilities to calculate zeta potentials and sedimentation volumes of zinc insulin suspensions prepared at different NaCl concentrations (0, 17, and 120 mM) and at various pH values from 5 to 8.
  • The general trend observed was that the magnitude of the zeta potential increased with pH when it was higher than the isoelectric point of 5.3.
  • When the sodium chloride concentration was 120 mM, a very rapid change in zeta potential was observed in the pH range of 6.6 to 7.2, with a maximum magnitude of zeta potential at about pH 6.9, the same pH that was observed to yield the largest sedimentation volume.
  • Our experimental results indicate that the greatest adsorption of chloride ion on the zinc insulin suspension particles occurred in the same pH range, which appeared to be responsible for the rapid change of zeta potential in that pH range.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorides / chemistry. Insulin / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemistry, Physical. Electric Conductivity. Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel. Humans. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Isoelectric Focusing. Physicochemical Phenomena

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  • (PMID = 7562418.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3549
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pharmaceutical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pharm Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chlorides; 0 / Insulin
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36. Bellon SF, Lippard SJ: Bending studies of DNA site-specifically modified by cisplatin, trans-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) and cis-[Pt(NH3)2(N3-cytosine)Cl]+. Biophys Chem; 1990 Apr;35(2-3):179-88
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  • [Title] Bending studies of DNA site-specifically modified by cisplatin, trans-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) and cis-[Pt(NH3)2(N3-cytosine)Cl]+.
  • Duplex oligonucleotides containing a single intrastrand [Pt(NH3)2]2+ cross-link or monofunctional adduct and either 15 or 22 bp in length were synthesized and chemically characterized.
  • When modified by the monofunctional adduct cis-[Pt(NH3)2(N3-cytosine)(dG)]Cl the helix remains rod-like.
  • [MeSH-minor] Autoradiography. Base Sequence. Chemistry, Physical. Hydrolysis. Molecular Conformation. Molecular Sequence Data. Physicochemical Phenomena. Spectrophotometry, Atomic. Stereoisomerism

  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CIS-DIAMINEDICHLOROPLATINUM .
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  • (PMID = 2397272.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-4622
  • [Journal-full-title] Biophysical chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biophys. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA34992
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] NETHERLANDS
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 9007-49-2 / DNA; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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37. Nakanishi S, Fujii M, Sugamura Y, Suzuki A, Shibata Y, Koizumi N, Watanabe Y: Evaluation of the physicochemical characteristics of crospovidone that influence solid dispersion preparation. Int J Pharm; 2011 Jul 15;413(1-2):119-25
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  • [Title] Evaluation of the physicochemical characteristics of crospovidone that influence solid dispersion preparation.
  • Four types of commercial CroPVP, Polyplasdone XL (XL) used as the initial carrier, Polyplasdone XL10 and INF-10 manufactured by milling XL, and Kollidon CL (CL) marketed by another company, were compared.
  • The limit of the IM-CrosPVP weight ratio with which an SD can be prepared (maximum IM content) was calculated on the basis of the heat of fusion of physical mixtures of IM and CrosPVP with various weight ratios.
  • When CL was used, however, it was about half of that obtained with XL, even though the difference between XL and CL was not observed in the physicochemical characteristics (particle size, specific surface area, flowability, glass transition temperature, IR spectra, and solid state NMR spectra).
  • As determined by pore size distribution measurement, the volume of pore of which size is larger than the particle size of IM was less in CL than in XL.
  • [MeSH-major] Drug Delivery Systems. Pharmaceutic Aids / chemistry. Povidone / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / chemistry. Drug Carriers / chemistry. Drug Compounding. Excipients / chemistry. Hot Temperature. Indomethacin / chemistry. Particle Size. Physicochemical Phenomena. Powders / chemistry. Solubility. Surface Properties. Transition Temperature

  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. INDOMETHACIN .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. POLYVINYLPYRROLIDONE .
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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21549186.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-3476
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of pharmaceutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Pharm
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Excipients; 0 / Pharmaceutic Aids; 0 / Powders; 9003-39-8 / Povidone; XXE1CET956 / Indomethacin
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38. Teagarden DL, Radavich JF, White JL, Hem SL: Aluminum chlorohydrate II: Physicochemical properties. J Pharm Sci; 1981 Jul;70(7):762-4
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  • [Title] Aluminum chlorohydrate II: Physicochemical properties.
  • Determination of the chloride content of aluminum chlorohydrate by a chloride-selective indicated that gamma Cl leads to 1.
  • IR analysis demonstrated that chloride was exchanged readily by nitrate and that the IR bands of the anion were not perturbed significantly.
  • Thus, chloride is believed to act as a counterion.
  • A high positive charge is predicted based o the critical coagulation concentration of aluminum chlorohydrate and the stability of aluminum chlorohydrate to attack by protons, as demonstrated by pH-stat titration Potentiometric titration with sodium hydroxide showed adsorption of hydroxyl anions initially, but a higher pH than expected was observed at the end-point.
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemistry, Physical. Crystallization. Electrochemistry. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Microscopy, Electron, Scanning. Physicochemical Phenomena. Potentiometry

  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. ALUMINUM HYDROXIDE .
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  • (PMID = 7264922.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3549
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pharmaceutical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pharm Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5QB0T2IUN0 / Aluminum Hydroxide; HPN8MZW13M / aluminum chlorhydrate
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39. Choi YM, Jung KC, Jo HM, Nam KW, Choe JH, Rhee MS, Kim BC: Combined effects of potassium lactate and calcium ascorbate as sodium chloride substitutes on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of low-sodium frankfurter sausage. Meat Sci; 2014 Jan;96(1):21-5
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  • [Title] Combined effects of potassium lactate and calcium ascorbate as sodium chloride substitutes on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of low-sodium frankfurter sausage.
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the combined effects of sodium chloride (NaCl) substitutes, including potassium lactate (K-lactate) and calcium ascorbate (Ca-ascorbate), on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of low-sodium frankfurter sausage (1.2% content of NaCl).
  • [MeSH-major] Ascorbic Acid / analysis. Color. Meat Products / analysis. Potassium / analysis. Sodium Chloride / analysis. Taste
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Animals. Female. Food Additives / analysis. Food Handling. Humans. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Lactic Acid / analysis. Linear Models. Male. Physicochemical Phenomena. Swine. Young Adult

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Potassium.
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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Sodium ascorbate .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. LACTIC ACID .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. L-Ascorbic Acid .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CALCIUM ASCORBATE .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. POTASSIUM, ELEMENTAL .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. SODIUM CHLORIDE .
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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 23896133.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4138
  • [Journal-full-title] Meat science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Meat Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Food Additives; 183E4W213W / calcium ascorbate; 33X04XA5AT / Lactic Acid; 451W47IQ8X / Sodium Chloride; PQ6CK8PD0R / Ascorbic Acid; RWP5GA015D / Potassium
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Calcium ascorbate / Frankfurter / Physicochemical and sensory quality / Potassium lactate / Sodium chloride substitute
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40. Thompson D, Coleman S, Diamond D, Byrne R: Electronic structure calculations and physicochemical experiments quantify the competitive liquid ion association and probe stabilisation effects for nitrobenzospiropyran in phosphonium-based ionic liquids. Phys Chem Chem Phys; 2011 Apr 7;13(13):6156-68
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  • [Title] Electronic structure calculations and physicochemical experiments quantify the competitive liquid ion association and probe stabilisation effects for nitrobenzospiropyran in phosphonium-based ionic liquids.
  • Liquid ion association in ionic liquids (ILs) has been examined using a comprehensive series of electronic structure calculations that measure the relative extents of ion association and probe stabilisation for the photochromic dye nitrobenzospiropyran (BSP) in a range of ILs featuring both long-tailed phosphonium cations and short-tailed imidazolium cations, paired with both chloride and NTf(2) anions.
  • New physicochemical experiments measured the photochromic properties of BSP in the phosphonium-based room temperature ILs.
  • Taken together, the computed complexation energies and measured spectroscopic properties support recent Walden plots of unusual conductivity-viscosity behaviour obtained for the same ILs and reveal some new features in the atom-scale structure and energetics of local, ion-ion and ion-molecule interactions.
  • Calculations show inter-ion interactions strengthened by between 0.4 and 0.7 eV as stronger constituent ions are used, which contributes to the longer range rigidity of the Cl-based IL structure as reflected in the doubled |zwitterion → closed| probe relaxation time measured for Cl(-)vs. NTf(2)(-) in phosphonium-based ILs.
  • Overall the electronic calculations of local, individual ion-ion and ion-molecule interactions serve to clarify some of the measured physicochemical properties and provide new data for the development of classical force field-based approaches to measure also the longer range effects that, together with the electronic effects, provide the condensed phase IL structure and properties.
  • More generally, the combined simulation and experimental results serve as a further example of how both the polar hydrophilic headgroup and non-polar hydrophobic tail of the constituent ions serve as distinct targets for IL rational design.
  • [MeSH-major] Benzopyrans / chemistry. Electrons. Indoles / chemistry. Ionic Liquids / chemistry. Nitro Compounds / chemistry. Organophosphorus Compounds / chemistry. Quantum Theory
  • [MeSH-minor] Models, Molecular. Physicochemical Phenomena

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  • (PMID = 21350746.001).
  • [ISSN] 1463-9084
  • [Journal-full-title] Physical chemistry chemical physics : PCCP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Phys Chem Chem Phys
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzopyrans; 0 / Indoles; 0 / Ionic Liquids; 0 / Nitro Compounds; 0 / Organophosphorus Compounds; 0 / spiropyran; 0 / tributylmethyl phosphonium chloride
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41. Choi H, Lee M, Kim M, Kim C: Effect of additives on the physicochemical properties of liquid suppository bases. Int J Pharm; 1999 Nov 10;190(1):13-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effect of additives on the physicochemical properties of liquid suppository bases.
  • To investigate the effects of additives on the physicochemical properties of in situ gelling and mucoadhesive liquid suppository base, gelation temperature, gel strength and bioadhesive force of liquid suppository base, poloxamer 407 (P 407) and poloxamer 188 (P 188) (15/15%) were evaluated in the presence of following additives: solvent (ethanol, propylene glycol, glycerin), ionic strength-controlling agent (sodium chloride) and pH-controlling agent (hydrochloric acid, sodium monohydrogen phosphate, sodium dihydrogen phosphate).
  • Among the additives studied, sodium chloride, sodium monohydrogen phosphate and sodium dihydrogen phosphate increased to a great extent the gel strength and the bioadhesive force of P 407/P 188 (15/15%) with a decrease in gelation temperature.
  • However, the addition of 1% of sodium chloride, sodium monohydrogen phosphate or sodium dihydrogen phosphate caused a greater than 60-fold increase in gel strength and over a tenfold increase in bioadhesive force with 2-4 degrees C decrease of gelation temperature within optimal range, compared with P 407/P 188 (15/15%) alone.
  • Taken together, these findings indicate that the effect of additives on the physicochemical properties of liquid suppository bases depends on their bonding capacities, in that additives such as sodium chloride, sodium monohydrogen phosphate and sodium dihydrogen phosphate having strong cross-linking bonds with the components of liquid suppository base increase the strength and bioadhesive force of a gel compared to liquid suppository base alone, while additives such as ethanol, propylene glycol and hydrochloric acid having weaker hydrogen bonding result in a weaker response.
  • Thus, sodium chloride and sodium phosphates appear to be promising additives for in situ gelling and mucoadhesive liquid suppository base, if used in adequate amounts.
  • [MeSH-major] Solvents / chemistry. Suppositories / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Adhesiveness. Chemistry, Physical. Drug Compounding. Ethanol / chemistry. Gels. Glycerol / chemistry. Hydrochloric Acid / chemistry. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Osmolar Concentration. Phosphates / chemistry. Physicochemical Phenomena. Poloxamer / chemistry. Propylene Glycol / chemistry. Sodium Chloride / chemistry. Temperature

  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. GLYCERIN .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Propylene glycol .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. ETHANOL .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. HYDROGEN CHLORIDE .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. SODIUM CHLORIDE .
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  • (PMID = 10528092.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-5173
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of pharmaceutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Pharm
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] NETHERLANDS
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gels; 0 / Phosphates; 0 / Solvents; 0 / Suppositories; 106392-12-5 / Poloxamer; 3K9958V90M / Ethanol; 451W47IQ8X / Sodium Chloride; 6DC9Q167V3 / Propylene Glycol; PDC6A3C0OX / Glycerol; QTT17582CB / Hydrochloric Acid; SE337SVY37 / sodium phosphate
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42. Pavagadhi S, Tang AL, Sathishkumar M, Loh KP, Balasubramanian R: Removal of microcystin-LR and microcystin-RR by graphene oxide: adsorption and kinetic experiments. Water Res; 2013 Sep 1;47(13):4621-9
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  • The environmental pollutants addressed in this study included different anions (nitrate NO3-, nitrite NO2-, sulphate SO4(2-), chloride (Cl(-)), phosphate PO4(3-) and fluoride (F(-))) and cations (sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)), magnesium (Mg(2+)) and calcium (Ca(2+))).
  • [MeSH-major] Graphite / chemistry. Microcystins / isolation & purification. Oxides / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Adsorption. Anions / chemistry. Cations / chemistry. Charcoal / chemistry. Environment. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Kinetics. Microscopy, Atomic Force. Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Physicochemical Phenomena. Singapore

  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Microcystin-LR .
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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 23764611.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-2448
  • [Journal-full-title] Water research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Water Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anions; 0 / Cations; 0 / Microcystins; 0 / Oxides; 101043-37-2 / cyanoginosin LR; 111755-37-4 / microcystin RR; 16291-96-6 / Charcoal; 7782-42-5 / Graphite
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adsorption / Algal bloom / Cyanotoxin / Graphene oxide / MCLR / MCRR / Microcystin
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43. Xu H, Ding P, Wei G, Zheng J: Preparation and some physicochemical properties of cross-linked poloxamer hydrogel spheres. Drug Dev Ind Pharm; 2001 Feb;27(2):171-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Preparation and some physicochemical properties of cross-linked poloxamer hydrogel spheres.
  • The principal purpose of this paper is to report the preparation of cross-linked poloxamer hydrogel spheres in an aqueous two-phase system without the use of organic solvent and additional emulsifier and physicochemical properties related to drug release.
  • Poloxamer 188 was modified with methacryloyl chloride to obtain the polymerizable derivative (macromer).
  • [MeSH-major] Hydrogels / chemistry. Microspheres. Poloxamer / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemistry, Physical. Cross-Linking Reagents. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Microscopy, Electron, Scanning. Particle Size. Physicochemical Phenomena. Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet. Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared. Vitamin B 12 / chemistry

  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CYANOCOBALAMIN .
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  • (PMID = 11266229.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9045
  • [Journal-full-title] Drug development and industrial pharmacy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drug Dev Ind Pharm
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cross-Linking Reagents; 0 / Hydrogels; 106392-12-5 / Poloxamer; P6YC3EG204 / Vitamin B 12
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44. Zatloukal Z: [Effect of pilocarpine chloride on pseudoplastic hydrogel]. Ceska Slov Farm; 2003 May;52(3):131-5
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  • [Title] [Effect of pilocarpine chloride on pseudoplastic hydrogel].
  • The obtained equations make it possible not only to estimate apparent and real viscosity, but also the area under the curve of the pseudoplastic rheogram.
  • At a temperature of 32 degrees C, analysis of variance demonstrated a significant diminution of this area in the presence of about 2% of pilocarpinium chloride.
  • [MeSH-major] Hydrogel / chemistry. Methylcellulose / analogs & derivatives. Methylcellulose / chemistry. Pilocarpine
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemistry, Physical. Elasticity. Hypromellose Derivatives. Physicochemical Phenomena. Viscosity

  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. METHYL CELLULOSE .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. PILOCARPINE .
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  • (PMID = 12789773.001).
  • [ISSN] 1210-7816
  • [Journal-full-title] Ceská a Slovenská farmacie : casopis Ceské farmaceutické spolecnosti a Slovenské farmaceutické spolecnosti
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ceska Slov Farm
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 01MI4Q9DI3 / Pilocarpine; 25852-47-5 / Hydrogel; 3NXW29V3WO / Hypromellose Derivatives; 9004-67-5 / Methylcellulose
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45. Niu M, Zhang W, Wang D, Chen Y, Chen R: Correlation of physicochemical properties and sludge dewaterability under chemical conditioning using inorganic coagulants. Bioresour Technol; 2013 Sep;144:337-43
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  • [Title] Correlation of physicochemical properties and sludge dewaterability under chemical conditioning using inorganic coagulants.
  • This study investigated the effects of chemical conditioning with three representative inorganic coagulants (FeCl3, polyaluminum chloride (PACl) and high performance PACl (HPAC) on sludge dewaterability.
  • We monitored the particle size, kinetic viscosity (KV), fractal dimension (D(F)) and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) located in different layers of sludge floc (soluble, loosely-bound (LB), tightly-bound (TB)) to understand the correlation of dewaterability and physicochemical properties of sludge under chemical conditioning.
  • Furthermore, sludge dewaterability correlated well with the change in concentration of soluble EPS, LB-EPS and TB-EPS, but not with KV, D(F), floc size.
  • [MeSH-major] Inorganic Chemicals / chemistry. Physicochemical Phenomena. Sewage / chemistry. Water / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopolymers / chemistry. Filtration. Flocculation. Kinetics. Molecular Weight. Particle Size. Solubility. Viscosity

  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Water .
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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • (PMID = 23886852.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-2976
  • [Journal-full-title] Bioresource technology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bioresour. Technol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biopolymers; 0 / Inorganic Chemicals; 0 / Sewage; 059QF0KO0R / Water
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Chemical conditioning / EPS / Inorganic coagulants / Physicochemical properties / Sludge dewaterability
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46. Glisson BT, Craft BF, Nelson JH, Meuzelaar HL: Production of vinylidene chloride from the thermal decomposition of methyl chloroform. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J; 1986 Jul;47(7):427-35
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  • [Title] Production of vinylidene chloride from the thermal decomposition of methyl chloroform.
  • This study investigated the extent to which methyl chloroform undergoes thermal decomposition to form vinylidene chloride.
  • Vinylidene chloride was detected in nearly stoichiometric amounts.
  • Once again, the conversion to vinylidene chloride was nearly complete.
  • First, under these experimental conditions, methyl chloroform undergoes thermal decomposition to yield substantial quantities of vinylidene chloride.
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemistry, Physical. Copper. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Glass. Physicochemical Phenomena. Temperature

  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. 1,1,1-TRICHLOROETHANE .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. COPPER, ELEMENTAL .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. 1,1-DICHLOROETHYLENE .
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  • [ErratumIn] Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 1986 Oct;47(10):665
  • (PMID = 3751891.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-8894
  • [Journal-full-title] American Industrial Hygiene Association journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Ind Hyg Assoc J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIOSH CDC HHS / OH / 5-T15-OH07141-06
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dichloroethylenes; 0 / Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated; 0 / Trichloroethanes; 113C650IR1 / 1,1,1-trichloroethane; 21SK105J9D / vinylidene chloride; 789U1901C5 / Copper
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47. Sarkisian BG, Novokhatskiĭ AS, Berezina LK, L'vov DK: [Physicochemical properties of the Okhotsky virus]. Vopr Virusol; 1979 Jul-Aug;(4):373-7
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  • [Title] [Physicochemical properties of the Okhotsky virus].
  • [Transliterated title] Nekotorye fiziko-khimicheskie svoĭstva virusa Okhotskiĭ.
  • The buoyant densities of its virions were determined in sucrose and cesium chloride gradients and found to be 1.16--1.18 and 1.36 g/cm3, respectively.
  • The study of the above physico-chemical properties confirmed the appurtenance of Okhotsky virus to the genus Orbivirus of the Reoviridae family.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Centrifugation, Density Gradient. Chemistry, Physical. Genes, Viral. Mice. Physicochemical Phenomena. RNA, Viral / analysis. RNA, Viral / isolation & purification. Virus Cultivation / methods

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  • (PMID = 225884.001).
  • [ISSN] 0507-4088
  • [Journal-full-title] Voprosy virusologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vopr. Virusol.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] USSR
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Viral
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48. Wong YL, Hubieki MP, Curfman CL, Doncel GF, Dudding TC, Savle PS, Gandour RD: A structure-activity study of spermicidal and anti-HIV properties of hydroxylated cationic surfactants. Bioorg Med Chem; 2002 Nov;10(11):3599-608
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  • The syntheses of 2-hydroxy-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-N,N-dimethylhexadecan-1-aminium chloride [1(16)Cl] and iodide [1(16)I], 2-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethylhexadecan-1-aminium chloride (6), N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-N,N-dimethylhexadecan-1-aminium chloride (8), N,N-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)-N-methylhexadecan-1-aminium chloride (11), and 2-hydroxy-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-4-oxahexadecan-1-aminium chloride (14) are reported along with the critical micelle concentrations (cmcs), as measured by conductivity at 25 degrees C, of 1(16)Cl, 1(16)I, 6, 8, 11, and N,N,N-trimethylhexadecan-1-aminium chloride (12).
  • A plot of minimum effective concentration (MEC) in the Sander-Cramer spermicidal assay and cmc shows that 1(16)Cl and 6 have the best spermicidal activity and highest cmcs.
  • Compounds 8, 11, and 1(16)Cl are the most active at 0.05 mg mL(-1) against cell-free and cell-associated virus.
  • In conclusion, 1(16)Cl shows the best combination of dual activity against sperm and HIV; it is a promising candidate for further preclinical studies as a topical, contraceptive microbicide.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-HIV Agents / chemistry. Anti-HIV Agents / pharmacology. Spermatocidal Agents / chemistry. Spermatocidal Agents / pharmacology. Surface-Active Agents / chemistry. Surface-Active Agents / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cations. Chemistry, Physical. HIV-1 / drug effects. Humans. Hydroxylation. In Vitro Techniques. Indicators and Reagents. Male. Micelles. Microbial Sensitivity Tests. Oxygen / chemistry. Physicochemical Phenomena. Structure-Activity Relationship

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  • (PMID = 12213475.001).
  • [ISSN] 0968-0896
  • [Journal-full-title] Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bioorg. Med. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents; 0 / Cations; 0 / Indicators and Reagents; 0 / Micelles; 0 / Spermatocidal Agents; 0 / Surface-Active Agents; S88TT14065 / Oxygen
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49. Spier F, Zavareze Eda R, Marques e Silva R, Elias MC, Dias AR: Effect of alkali and oxidative treatments on the physicochemical, pasting, thermal and morphological properties of corn starch. J Sci Food Agric; 2013 Jul;93(9):2331-7
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  • [Title] Effect of alkali and oxidative treatments on the physicochemical, pasting, thermal and morphological properties of corn starch.
  • Thus this work evaluated the physicochemical, pasting, morphological, cystallinity and thermal properties of chemically modified corn starch, after either the isolated or combined action of alkaline (sodium hydroxide) and oxidative (sodium hypochlorite) treatments.
  • RESULTS: The highest values for the sum of carbonyl and carboxyl and enzymatic hydrolysis occurred in starches submitted to oxidative treatment at high active chlorine concentrations.
  • [MeSH-major] Caustics / chemistry. Food Handling. Oxidants / chemistry. Seeds / chemistry. Starch / chemistry. Zea mays / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Crystallization. Gels. Hot Temperature. Hydrolysis. Microscopy, Electron, Scanning. Osmolar Concentration. Oxidation-Reduction. Physicochemical Phenomena. Sodium Hydroxide / chemistry. Sodium Hypochlorite / chemistry. Suspensions. Transition Temperature. Viscosity

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  • [Copyright] © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.
  • (PMID = 23423960.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0010
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the science of food and agriculture
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Sci. Food Agric.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Caustics; 0 / Gels; 0 / Oxidants; 0 / Suspensions; 55X04QC32I / Sodium Hydroxide; 9005-25-8 / Starch; DY38VHM5OD / Sodium Hypochlorite
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50. Pouliquen D, Gallois Y: Physicochemical properties of structured water in human albumin and gammaglobulin solutions. Biochimie; 2001 Sep;83(9):891-8
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  • [Title] Physicochemical properties of structured water in human albumin and gammaglobulin solutions.
  • The physicochemical properties of the different phases of water molecules were studied in concentrated solutions (132 g/L) of human serum albumin and gammaglobulin by (1)H NMR relaxometry.
  • Comparison of the temperature dependence of the structured water's T1 in the two solutions in the presence of an increasing concentration of manganese chloride allowed two main conclusions to be drawn.
  • Firstly, the differences observed in total water and structured water physicochemical properties are directly related to protein structure and three-dimensional arrangement.
  • [MeSH-major] Albumins / chemistry. Water / chemistry. gamma-Globulins / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemistry, Physical. Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Physicochemical Phenomena. Solutions / chemistry. Spin Trapping. Temperature

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  • (PMID = 11698111.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9084
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochimie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochimie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Albumins; 0 / Solutions; 0 / gamma-Globulins; 059QF0KO0R / Water
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51. Subová M, Vitková Z, Cirbusová E, Erös I, Kónya M: [Effect of polymer concentration on rheological properties of Carbopol 980 hydrogels containing trimecainium chloride]. Ceska Slov Farm; 2005 Mar;54(2):96-9
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  • [Title] [Effect of polymer concentration on rheological properties of Carbopol 980 hydrogels containing trimecainium chloride].
  • The present paper examines the effect of Carbopol 980 concentration on rheological properties of hydrogels with and without trimecainium chloride for a period of 2, 7, and 14 days after their preparation.
  • On the basis of an evaluation of the changes in structural viscosity in dependence on the period of measurement, it has been concluded that for formulation of trimecainium chloride to a dermal dosage form, Carbopol 980 concentrations of 0.5 and 1.2 % are suitable.
  • [MeSH-major] Acrylic Resins / chemistry. Anesthetics, Local. Hydrogels / chemistry. Trimecaine
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemistry, Physical. Physicochemical Phenomena. Rheology

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  • (PMID = 15895974.001).
  • [ISSN] 1210-7816
  • [Journal-full-title] Ceská a Slovenská farmacie : casopis Ceské farmaceutické spolecnosti a Slovenské farmaceutické spolecnosti
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ceska Slov Farm
  • [Language] slo
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acrylic Resins; 0 / Anesthetics, Local; 0 / Hydrogels; 0 / carbomer; IN1233R0JO / Trimecaine
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52. Han J, Koutmos M, Ahmad SA, Coucouvanis D: Rational synthesis of high nuclearity Mo/Fe/S clusters: the reductive coupling approach in the convenient synthesis of (Cl(4)-cat)(2)Mo(2)Fe(6)S(8)(PR(3))(6) [R = Et, (n)Pr, (n)Bu] and the new [(Cl(4)-cat)(2)Mo(2)Fe(2)S(3)O(PEt(3))(3)Cl]-1/2(Fe(PEt(3))(2)(MeCN)(4)) and (Cl(4)-cat)(2)Mo(2)Fe(3)S(5)(PEt(3))(5) clusters. Inorg Chem; 2001 Nov 5;40(23):5985-99
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  • [Title] Rational synthesis of high nuclearity Mo/Fe/S clusters: the reductive coupling approach in the convenient synthesis of (Cl(4)-cat)(2)Mo(2)Fe(6)S(8)(PR(3))(6) [R = Et, (n)Pr, (n)Bu] and the new [(Cl(4)-cat)(2)Mo(2)Fe(2)S(3)O(PEt(3))(3)Cl]-1/2(Fe(PEt(3))(2)(MeCN)(4)) and (Cl(4)-cat)(2)Mo(2)Fe(3)S(5)(PEt(3))(5) clusters.
  • A general method for the synthesis of high nuclearity Mo/Fe/S clusters is presented and involves the reductive coupling of the (Et(4)N)(2)[(Cl(4)-cat)MoOFeS(2)Cl(2)] (I) and (Et(4)N)(2)[Fe(2)S(2)Cl(4)] (II) clusters.
  • The reaction of I and II with Fe(PR(3))(2)Cl(2) or sodium salts of noncoordinating anions such as NaPF(6) or NaBPh(4) in the presence of PR(3) (R = Et, (n)Pr, or (n)Bu) affords (Cl(4)-cat)(2)Mo(2)Fe(6)S(8)(PR(3))(6) [R = Et (IIIa), (n)Pr (IIIb), (n)Bu (IIIc)], Fe(6)S(6)(PEt(3))(4)Cl(2) (IV) and (PF(6))[Fe(6)S(8)(P(n)Pr(3))(6)] (V) as byproducts.
  • The isolation of (Et(4)N)[Fe(PEt(3))Cl(3)] (VI), NaCl, and SPEt(3) supports a reductive coupling mechanism.
  • The reductive coupling reaction between I and II by PEt(3) and NaPF(6) in a 1:1 ratio produces the (Et(4)N)(2)[(Cl(4)-cat)Mo(L)Fe(3)S(4)Cl(3)] clusters [L = MeCN (VIIa), THF (VIIb)].
  • The hitherto unknown [(Cl(4)-cat)(2)Mo(2)Fe(2)S(3)O(PEt(3))(3)Cl](+) cluster (VIII) has been isolated as the 2:1 salt of the (Fe(PEt(3))(2)(MeCN)(4))(2+) cation after the reductive self-coupling reaction of I in the presence of Fe(PEt(3))(2)Cl(2).
  • The reductive coupling of compound I also affords in low yield the new (Cl(4)-cat)(2)Mo(2)Fe(3)S(5)(PEt(3))(5) cluster (X) as a byproduct.
  • [MeSH-major] Chemistry, Organic / methods. Organometallic Compounds
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemistry, Physical. Chlorides / chemistry. Crystallography, X-Ray. Iron / chemistry. Molecular Conformation. Molecular Structure. Molybdenum / chemistry. Physicochemical Phenomena. Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet. Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared. Spectrum Analysis. Sulfur / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 11681915.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-1669
  • [Journal-full-title] Inorganic chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Inorg Chem
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM33080
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chlorides; 0 / Organometallic Compounds; 70FD1KFU70 / Sulfur; 81AH48963U / Molybdenum; E1UOL152H7 / Iron
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53. Gaizer SN, Pintye-Hódi K, Selmeczi B: Release kinetics of potassium aspartate in polyvinyl chloride matrix formulation. Pharmazie; 1987 Jul;42(7):463-4
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  • [Title] Release kinetics of potassium aspartate in polyvinyl chloride matrix formulation.
  • The authors prepared potassium aspartate matrix tablets in combination with polyvinyl chloride.
  • The physical parameters were measured and the dissolution rates were determined.
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemistry, Physical. Diffusion. Particle Size. Physicochemical Phenomena. Polyvinyl Chloride. Solubility. Tablets, Enteric-Coated

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  • (PMID = 3671474.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-7144
  • [Journal-full-title] Die Pharmazie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pharmazie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] GERMANY, EAST
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tablets, Enteric-Coated; 30KYC7MIAI / Aspartic Acid; 9002-86-2 / Polyvinyl Chloride
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54. Neef C, Meijer DK: Structure-pharmacokinetics relationship of quaternary ammonium compounds. Correlation of physicochemical and pharmacokinetic parameters. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol; 1984 Dec;328(2):111-8
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  • [Title] Structure-pharmacokinetics relationship of quaternary ammonium compounds. Correlation of physicochemical and pharmacokinetic parameters.
  • Correlations between lipophilicity or molecular weight and some pharmacokinetic parameters such as clearance (Cl), elimination rate constant (k10), volume of distribution (V), and terminal half life (lambda z) are presented for a series of structurally related quaternary ammonium cations (QACs).
  • The relationship between total plasma clearance or hepatic, renal and intestinal clearance and lipophilicity for the present set of data could be described most properly by the equation Y = 1/(aXb + c), where Y stands for the logarithm of the pharmacokinetic parameters and X represents the logarithm of the values of some physicochemical parameters, such as the partition coefficient (P), the (HPLC) capacity factor k' (another lipophilicity parameter) and molecular weight (MW).
  • The extent of biliary output of the organic cations shows a threshold phenomenon, sharply increasing at log P greater than 1.5 to a maximum at P greater than 2.5.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Chemistry, Physical. Half-Life. Intestines / metabolism. Kidney / metabolism. Kinetics. Lipids / analysis. Liver / metabolism. Male. Molecular Weight. Physicochemical Phenomena. Protein Binding. Rats. Solubility. Structure-Activity Relationship

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  • (PMID = 6527701.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-1298
  • [Journal-full-title] Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's archives of pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] GERMANY, WEST
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Lipids; 0 / Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
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55. Kimura R, Miwa M, Kato Y, Sato M, Yamada S: Relationship between nasal absorption and physicochemical properties of quaternary ammonium compounds. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther; 1991 Mar-Apr;310:13-21
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  • [Title] Relationship between nasal absorption and physicochemical properties of quaternary ammonium compounds.
  • The present study was undertaken to investigate the in situ nasal absorption of a series of tetraethylammonium chloride-related aliphatic quaternary ammonium compounds in rats and its relationship with their physicochemical properties (molecular weight and partition coefficient).
  • The nasal absorption rates of ethyltrimethyl-ammonium iodide and tetraethylammonium chloride, with the lowest molecular weight, were the highest, and those of tetra-n-butylammonium chloride and tetra-n-propylammonium bromide, with high molecular weight, were much lower.
  • A physicochemical study has shown that there was a linear relationship between the molecular weight of the ten quaternary ammonium compounds and their partition coefficient, thereby suggesting an increase in lipophilicity with the molecular weight.
  • [MeSH-major] Nasal Mucosa / metabolism. Quaternary Ammonium Compounds / chemistry. Quaternary Ammonium Compounds / pharmacokinetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Absorption. Animals. Chemistry, Physical. Kinetics. Lipids / chemistry. Male. Molecular Weight. Physicochemical Phenomena. Rats. Rats, Inbred Strains. Solubility

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  • (PMID = 1772325.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-9780
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives internationales de pharmacodynamie et de thérapie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] BELGIUM
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Lipids; 0 / Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
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56. Cannon JB, Krill SL, Porter WR: Physicochemical properties of A-75998, an antagonist of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone. J Pharm Sci; 1995 Aug;84(8):953-8
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  • [Title] Physicochemical properties of A-75998, an antagonist of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone.
  • The physicochemical properties of A-75998, a synthetic antagonist of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone with potential for treatment of hormone-sensitive cancers and endometriosis, are described.
  • An accelerated solution stability study indicated that the compound is relatively stable and showed a U-shaped pH-rate profile, with maximum stability between pH 4.5 and 6.5.
  • The acid dissociation behavior of A-75998 was examined by UV-visible spectrophotometry at 25 degrees C in a series of buffers ranging from pH 1 to 13.
  • The apparent n-octanol/water partition coefficients were measured from pH 2 to 13, and the profile was consistent with the expected acid-dissociation behavior.
  • While appearing fairly water-soluble at pH < 5, dynamic light scattering of A-75998 in pH 4.5 buffer indicated the formation of aggregates of nonuniform size distribution.
  • A-75998 exhibited reverse or thermal gelation; sodium chloride exacerbates this gel formation and self-association.
  • Surface activity was pH-dependent, but no evidence was found for micelle formation.
  • [MeSH-major] Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / antagonists & inhibitors. Oligopeptides / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemistry, Physical. Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid. Densitometry. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Light. Molecular Weight. Particle Size. Physicochemical Phenomena. Scattering, Radiation. Solubility. Surface Tension

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  • (PMID = 7500280.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3549
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pharmaceutical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pharm Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / A 75998; 0 / Oligopeptides; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
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57. Sznitowska M, Janicki S, Dabrowska EA, Gajewska M: Physicochemical screening of antimicrobial agents as potential preservatives for submicron emulsions. Eur J Pharm Sci; 2002 Jun;15(5):489-95
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  • [Title] Physicochemical screening of antimicrobial agents as potential preservatives for submicron emulsions.
  • The emulsions were adjusted to pH 5.0 or 8.2 prior aseptic filtration or thermal sterilization, respectively.
  • The physicochemical stability of the preparations was observed during storage for 2 years at room temperature.
  • Parabens showed the best compatibility but satisfying stability was also observed in emulsions containing phenylethanol, m-cresol and benzalkonium chloride.
  • Only 1.2% of the total content of benzalkonium chloride was found in this phase and incorporation of this compound into different microscopic structures of the emulsion is proposed as a reason for such effect.
  • Preliminary studies on the efficacy of antimicrobial preservation was performed for emulsions containing parabens, benzalkonium chloride or chlorocresol and the negative results bring conclusion that higher concentration of antimicrobials or their combination may be required for efficient preservation of submicron emulsions.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Bacterial Agents / chemistry. Preservatives, Pharmaceutical / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemistry, Physical. Emulsions. Physicochemical Phenomena. Staphylococcus aureus / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 12036725.001).
  • [ISSN] 0928-0987
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of pharmaceutical sciences : official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Pharm Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Emulsions; 0 / Preservatives, Pharmaceutical
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58. Shimono K, Kitami M, Iwamoto M, Kamo N: Involvement of two groups in reversal of the bathochromic shift of pharaonis phoborhodopsin by chloride at low pH. Biophys Chem; 2000 Oct 30;87(2-3):225-30
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  • [Title] Involvement of two groups in reversal of the bathochromic shift of pharaonis phoborhodopsin by chloride at low pH.
  • Its lambdamax is at 496 nm, but upon acidification in the absence of chloride, lambdamax shifted to 522 nm.
  • In the presence of chloride, the spectral shifts were different: with a decrease in pH, a bathochromic shift was first observed, followed by a hypsochromic shift on further acidification.
  • This was interpreted as: the disappearance of a negative charge by the protonation of Asp75 was compensated by the binding of chloride, but it is worthy to note that the binding requires the protonation of another proton-associable group other than Asp75.
  • This is supported by the observation that in the presence of chloride, upon acidification, the lambdamax of D75N even showed a blue shift, showing that the protonation of a proton-associable group (pKa = 1.2) leads to the chloride binding that gives rise to a blue shift.
  • [MeSH-major] Archaeal Proteins. Bacteriorhodopsins / chemistry. Carotenoids. Halorhodopsins. Sensory Rhodopsins
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemistry, Physical. Chlorides / chemistry. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Natronobacterium / chemistry. Natronobacterium / genetics. Physicochemical Phenomena. Point Mutation. Recombinant Proteins / chemistry. Recombinant Proteins / genetics. Spectrophotometry

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  • (PMID = 11099184.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-4622
  • [Journal-full-title] Biophysical chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biophys. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] NETHERLANDS
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Archaeal Proteins; 0 / Chlorides; 0 / Halorhodopsins; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / Sensory Rhodopsins; 0 / sensory rhodopsin II protein, archaeal; 36-88-4 / Carotenoids; 53026-44-1 / Bacteriorhodopsins
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59. Snejdrová E, Zelenka J, Rehula M: [Effect of sodium chloride on elasticity of silicone matrices]. Ceska Slov Farm; 2002 Sep;51(5):248-51
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  • [Title] [Effect of sodium chloride on elasticity of silicone matrices].
  • An increase in the availability of the active ingredient from silicone matrices can be achieved by using sodium chloride as the filler.
  • An addition of sodium chloride also influences the mechanical properties of silicone systems.
  • The temperature dependence of real Young's model E' of addition silicone systems with sodium chloride was measured.
  • The effect of chloride is best described by the relation proposed by Nielsen.
  • Hydrodynamic theory provides good results for sodium chloride particle size of 102.5 microns, but for particle sizes of 20 microns and 60 microns it is less successful than Nielsen's relation.
  • [MeSH-major] Pharmaceutical Vehicles. Silicone Elastomers. Sodium Chloride
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemistry, Pharmaceutical. Chemistry, Physical. Elasticity. Physicochemical Phenomena

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  • (PMID = 12407924.001).
  • [ISSN] 1210-7816
  • [Journal-full-title] Ceská a Slovenská farmacie : casopis Ceské farmaceutické spolecnosti a Slovenské farmaceutické spolecnosti
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ceska Slov Farm
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Pharmaceutical Vehicles; 0 / Silicone Elastomers; 451W47IQ8X / Sodium Chloride
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60. Matsuda Y, Kawaguchi S, Kobayashi H, Nishijo J: Physicochemical characterization of spray-dried phenylbutazone polymorphs. J Pharm Sci; 1984 Feb;73(2):173-9
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  • [Title] Physicochemical characterization of spray-dried phenylbutazone polymorphs.
  • Three different crystalline forms (delta, beta, and epsilon) could be prepared from methylene chloride solution by varying the drying temperature of sprayed droplets from 120 degrees C to 30 degrees C.
  • Form epsilon, the fifth polymorph of phenylbutazone, was confirmed as a novel crystalline form which could not be prepared by recrystallization techniques.
  • [MeSH-minor] Calorimetry / methods. Chemistry, Physical. Crystallization. Microscopy, Electron, Scanning. Physicochemical Phenomena. Solubility. Spectrophotometry, Infrared. Thermodynamics. X-Ray Diffraction

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  • (PMID = 6707878.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3549
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pharmaceutical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pharm Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] GN5P7K3T8S / Phenylbutazone
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61. Almaas R, Robertson B, Linderholm B, Lundberg E, Saugstad OD, Moen A: Reversal of meconium inhibition of pulmonary surfactant by ferric chloride, copper chloride, and acetic acid. Am J Respir Crit Care Med; 2000 Nov;162(5):1789-94
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  • [Title] Reversal of meconium inhibition of pulmonary surfactant by ferric chloride, copper chloride, and acetic acid.
  • Ferric chloride and copper chloride completely reversed the inhibitory effect of meconium.
  • Meconium also prevented effective spreading of surfactant in a Wilhelmy balance system, and this inhibitory effect was counteracted by addition of ferric chloride.
  • Ferric chloride restored the number of microbubbles.
  • Addition of ferric chloride or copper chloride to surfactant/meconium lowers pH, and pH adjustment by acetic acid also reversed the inhibitory effect of meconium.
  • Together with the fact that the iron-chelator deferoxamine did not attenuate the effect of ferric chloride this suggests that the observed contrainhibition is caused by lowering of pH, and that meconium inhibition of surfactant is pH-dependent.
  • Lowering pH from 6.2 to 5-5.5 abolished the inhibitory effects of meconium on surfactant.
  • Inhibition of 2.5 mg/ml of Curosurf with plasma could also be reversed by increasing amounts of ferric chloride.
  • We conclude that the inhibitory effect of meconium on surfactant in vitro can be abolished by addition of ferric chloride, copper chloride, or acetic acid.
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemistry, Physical. Chlorides. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Humans. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. In Vitro Techniques. Infant, Newborn. Lipids / antagonists & inhibitors. Lipids / chemistry. Microspheres. Physicochemical Phenomena

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  • (PMID = 11069814.001).
  • [ISSN] 1073-449X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biological Products; 0 / Chlorides; 0 / Ferric Compounds; 0 / Lipids; 0 / Organometallic Compounds; 0 / Phospholipids; 0 / Pulmonary Surfactants; 0 / SF-RI 1, bovine surfactant preparation; 108778-82-1 / beractant; KE3U2023NP / poractant alfa; Q40Q9N063P / Acetic Acid; U38V3ZVV3V / ferric chloride
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62. Do Duc H, Tissot P, Meyer JM: Potential sweep and intensiostatic pulse studies of Sn, Sn8Hg and dental amalgam in chloride solution. J Dent Res; 1979 Feb;58(2):576-83
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  • [Title] Potential sweep and intensiostatic pulse studies of Sn, Sn8Hg and dental amalgam in chloride solution.
  • The anodic behavior of the Sn, the Sn8Hg (gamma2) phase and the dental amalgam in a chloride solution has been investigated by means of the linear potential sweep and of the intensiostatic pulse method.
  • The results indicate that anodic current varies with chloride concentration and that dissolution occurs prior to passivation of the electrode.
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemistry, Physical. Corrosion. Electrochemistry. Oxidation-Reduction. Oxides. Physicochemical Phenomena. Silver

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  • (PMID = 283086.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-0345
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of dental research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dent. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chlorides; 0 / Oxides; 3M4G523W1G / Silver; 7440-31-5 / Tin; 8049-85-2 / Dental Amalgam; FXS1BY2PGL / Mercury
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63. Duszyk M, Liu D, French AS, Man SF: Halide permeation through three types of epithelial anion channels after reconstitution into giant liposomes. Eur Biophys J; 1993;22(1):5-11
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  • Ion channels were characterized using the excised inside-out patch clamp configuration.
  • The linear 20 pS Cl- channel had the halide permeability sequence Cl- > I- > or = Br- > F-, and showed anomalous mole-fraction behavior in solutions containing different proportions of Cl- and F- ions.
  • The autwardly rectifying Cl- channel had the halide permeability sequence I- > Br- > Cl- > F-, and also showed anomalous mole-fraction behavior, indicating that both these channels probably contain multi-ion pores.
  • It was not selective amongst the halides, and there was no deviation from a linear dependence of relative current on molar fractions, indicating relatively simple permeation through the pore.
  • Comparison with the chloride channel proteins isolated biochemically from epithelial cell membranes is discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Halogens / pharmacokinetics. Ion Channels / metabolism. Liposomes
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Membrane Permeability / physiology. Chemistry, Physical. Chloride Channels. Epithelium / metabolism. Humans. Membrane Proteins / chemistry. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / physiology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / metabolism. Physicochemical Phenomena. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 7685690.001).
  • [ISSN] 0175-7571
  • [Journal-full-title] European biophysics journal : EBJ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Biophys. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] GERMANY
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chloride Channels; 0 / Halogens; 0 / Ion Channels; 0 / Liposomes; 0 / Membrane Proteins
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64. Kopecký F, Kopecká B, Kaclík P: [Properties of benzethonium chloride in micellar solutions and the effect of added sodium chloride]. Ceska Slov Farm; 2006 Jul;55(4):175-80
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  • [Title] [Properties of benzethonium chloride in micellar solutions and the effect of added sodium chloride].
  • Aqueous solutions of the antimicrobially effective quaternary ammonium salt benzethonium chloride (hyamine 1622) were studied using UV spectrophotometry and partially conductometry.
  • The spectra of micellar solutions of benzethonium chloride revealed a concentration-dependent bathochromic and hyperchromic shift of a weak UV absorption band in the region 250-300 nm.
  • This served to elaborate the spectrophotometric determination of the critical micellar concentration (CMC) of benzethonium chloride and the concentration of free benzethonium cations in micellar solutions without an addition of NaCl and with a constant addition of NaCl 0.003, 0.1 and 0.15 mol/l.
  • Premicellar associations were not observed and in NaCl-free solutions CMC 0.0028 mol/l was spectrophotometrically determined.
  • The courses of the determined concentrations of free benzethonium cations in the solutions both without and with the presence of NaCl were quite similar; their maximal values were always just a little higher than the corresponding CMC and with a further growth of the total concentration of benzethonium chloride there was, on the other hand, a marked decrease in the concentration of its free cations in micellar solution.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Infective Agents / chemistry. Benzethonium / chemistry. Quaternary Ammonium Compounds / chemistry. Sodium Chloride / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemistry, Physical. Micelles. Physicochemical Phenomena. Solutions. Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet

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  • (PMID = 16921736.001).
  • [ISSN] 1210-7816
  • [Journal-full-title] Ceská a Slovenská farmacie : casopis Ceské farmaceutické spolecnosti a Slovenské farmaceutické spolecnosti
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ceska Slov Farm
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Infective Agents; 0 / Micelles; 0 / Quaternary Ammonium Compounds; 0 / Solutions; 1VU15B70BP / Benzethonium; 451W47IQ8X / Sodium Chloride
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65. Yoo SH, Lee KH, Lee JS, Cha J, Park CS, Lee HG: Physicochemical properties and biological activities of DEAE-derivatized Sphingomonas gellan. J Agric Food Chem; 2005 Aug 10;53(16):6235-9
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  • [Title] Physicochemical properties and biological activities of DEAE-derivatized Sphingomonas gellan.
  • Physicochemical characteristics and biological activities of Sphingomonas gellan (S-gellan) were investigated.
  • The S-gellan was chemically derivatized with diethylaminoethyl chloride-HCl (DEAE-HCl), and the resulting modified S-gellan contained both positive and negative charges.
  • Up to 9 h of dialysis, the derivatized S-gellan released 29.3% less of cholic acid compared to the control group that did not contain S-gellan.
  • [MeSH-major] Ethanolamines / chemistry. Polysaccharides, Bacterial / chemistry. Sphingomonas / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Bile Acids and Salts / metabolism. Carbohydrates / analysis. Chemistry, Physical. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Physicochemical Phenomena. Solubility. Spectrophotometry, Infrared

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  • (PMID = 16076099.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-8561
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of agricultural and food chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Agric. Food Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bile Acids and Salts; 0 / Carbohydrates; 0 / Ethanolamines; 0 / Polysaccharides, Bacterial; 71010-52-1 / gellan gum; S6DL4M053U / 2-diethylaminoethanol
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66. Hellauer H, Winkler R: Denaturation of collagen fibers in NaI, NaCl and water of different pH values as studied by differential scanning calorimetric measurements. Connect Tissue Res; 1975;3(4):227-30
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  • [Title] Denaturation of collagen fibers in NaI, NaCl and water of different pH values as studied by differential scanning calorimetric measurements.
  • Microcalorimetric measurements of rat tail tendon collagen in different aqueous media show the following behavior of denaturation temperature (Td) and of denaturation enthalpy (deltaHd): H+ and OH- ions lower Td significantly beyond pH 4...11.
  • Addition of salts (0.15 M) generally lowers Td in the range between pH 5 and 10, I- being more effective than Cl- at pH greater than i.p.
  • However, in the region of pH less than i.p., I- raises Td to values above those of Cl- and even those of water.
  • The value of deltaHd was found to be insensitive to pH over the pH range of 4...11.
  • [MeSH-major] Collagen. Iodides. Sodium Chloride
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Calorimetry. Chemistry, Physical. Chlorides. Female. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Physicochemical Phenomena. Protein Denaturation. Rats. Temperature

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  • (PMID = 240647.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8207
  • [Journal-full-title] Connective tissue research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Connect. Tissue Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chlorides; 0 / Iodides; 451W47IQ8X / Sodium Chloride; 9007-34-5 / Collagen
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67. Uzoukwu BA, Onomake OR: Physicochemical profile studies of soil along the banks of Ubu river in Ekwusigo and Nnewi local government areas of Anambra State of Nigeria. Ann Chim; 2005 Jan-Feb;95(1-2):95-104
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  • [Title] Physicochemical profile studies of soil along the banks of Ubu river in Ekwusigo and Nnewi local government areas of Anambra State of Nigeria.
  • A physicochemical profile study on the soil along the banks of the Ubu river that runs across Ekwusigo and Nnewi Local Government Areas (LGA) of Anambra State of Nigeria was investigated for possible evidence of industrial waste disposal by the various large to medium scale industrial activities taking place within the two LGAs.
  • When compared with soil samples from Uzoakwa Ihiala (pH 5.44) with little or no industrial activities, the soil along the banks of the course of the river were found to be more acidic with mean pH values that are lower than 4.7.
  • Similarity in mean sulphate (7.01 mg/kg), phosphate (12.95 mg/kg) and chloride (242 mg/kg) contents was observed between the soils from the banks at Nnewi with those of the Uzoakwa Ihiala that was used as control.
  • This was attributed to contributions from domestic sources rather than from industrial sources, and partly to the similarity of their soil chemistry that may be indigenous to both areas.
  • The relative abundance of metal ions observed in the digested soil samples from the river banks follow the sequence Fe>>Al>Ca>Na>K>Zn>Cr.
  • Values of 4,565 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg were recorded for total hydrocarbon content and lead respectively for soils around Cento Group, indicating that there were industrial waste disposal or spillages on soil around the area, which was not observed in other areas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemistry, Physical. Nigeria. Physicochemical Phenomena. Rivers

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  • (PMID = 15801181.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4592
  • [Journal-full-title] Annali di chimica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Chim
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Industrial Waste; 0 / Soil; 0 / Soil Pollutants
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68. Muñoz-Úbeda M, Misra SK, Barrán-Berdón AL, Datta S, Aicart-Ramos C, Castro-Hartmann P, Kondaiah P, Junquera E, Bhattacharya S, Aicart E: How does the spacer length of cationic gemini lipids influence the lipoplex formation with plasmid DNA? Physicochemical and biochemical characterizations and their relevance in gene therapy. Biomacromolecules; 2012 Dec 10;13(12):3926-37
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  • [Title] How does the spacer length of cationic gemini lipids influence the lipoplex formation with plasmid DNA? Physicochemical and biochemical characterizations and their relevance in gene therapy.
  • Lipoplexes formed by the pEGFP-C3 plasmid DNA (pDNA) and lipid mixtures containing cationic gemini surfactant of the 1,2-bis(hexadecyl dimethyl ammonium) alkanes family referred to as C16CnC16, where n=2, 3, 5, or 12, and the zwitterionic helper lipid, 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) have been studied from a wide variety of physical, chemical, and biological standpoints.
  • 2011, 133, 18014), the detailed physicochemical and biological studies confirm that, in the presence of the studied series lipid mixtures, plasmid DNA is compacted with a large number of its associated Na+ counterions.
  • Consequently, the cationic lipid (CL) complexes prepared with pDNA and CL/DOPE mixtures to be used in gene transfection require significantly less amount of CL than the one estimated assuming a value of qDNA−=−2.
  • Depending on the CL molar composition, α, of the lipid mixture, and the effective charge ratio of the lipoplex, ρeff, the reported SAXS data indicate the presence of two or three structures in the same lipoplex, one in the DOPE-rich region, other in the CL-rich region, and another one present at any CL composition.
  • Each lipid combination was safe and did not show any significant levels of toxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Cations / chemistry. DNA / chemistry. Lipids / chemistry. Physicochemical Phenomena. Plasmids / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. CHO Cells. Cell Survival. Cricetinae. Electrophoresis, Agar Gel. Genetic Therapy. Green Fluorescent Proteins / genetics. Green Fluorescent Proteins / metabolism. HEK293 Cells. HeLa Cells. Humans. Liposomes / chemistry. Microscopy, Confocal. Phosphatidylethanolamines / chemistry. Scattering, Small Angle. Surface-Active Agents / chemistry. Transfection. Viscosity. X-Ray Diffraction / methods

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  • (PMID = 23130552.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-4602
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomacromolecules
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomacromolecules
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cations; 0 / Lipids; 0 / Liposomes; 0 / Phosphatidylethanolamines; 0 / Surface-Active Agents; 147336-22-9 / Green Fluorescent Proteins; 2462-63-7 / dioleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine; 9007-49-2 / DNA
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69. Wu CD, Liu XH, Fan JC, Wang LS: Ultrasonic destruction of chloroform and carbon tetrachloride in aqueous solution. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng; 2001;36(6):947-55
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  • The influences of initial concentration, bicarbonate/chloride, and acoustical intensity on the destruction rates have been observed.
  • However, their destruction rates increased with increasing acoustical intensity and were independent of addition of bicarbonate or chloride.
  • The resulting yield of ionic product (Cl-) for chloroform was determined.
  • [MeSH-major] Carbon Tetrachloride / chemistry. Chloroform / chemistry. Solvents / chemistry. Ultrasonics. Water Pollutants, Chemical / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemistry, Physical. Kinetics. Physicochemical Phenomena. Water Pollution / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 11501317.001).
  • [ISSN] 1093-4529
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous substances & environmental engineering
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Solvents; 0 / Water Pollutants, Chemical; 7V31YC746X / Chloroform; CL2T97X0V0 / Carbon Tetrachloride
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70. Read ML, Dash PR, Clark A, Howard KA, Oupicky D, Toncheva V, Alpar HO, Schacht EH, Ulbrich K, Seymour LW: Physicochemical and biological characterisation of an antisense oligonucleotide targeted against the bcl-2 mRNA complexed with cationic-hydrophilic copolymers. Eur J Pharm Sci; 2000 May;10(3):169-77
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  • [Title] Physicochemical and biological characterisation of an antisense oligonucleotide targeted against the bcl-2 mRNA complexed with cationic-hydrophilic copolymers.
  • Examination of the ability of poly(trimethylammonioethyl methacrylate chloride)-poly[N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide] (pHPMA-b-pTMAEM) block copolymers to condense the oligonucleotide by fluorescence and electrophoresis techniques showed that complexes were formed more efficiently than with copolymers containing poly(ethylene glycol) blocks grafted onto the backbone of poly(L-lysine) (pLL-g-pEG).
  • In addition, the copolymer pTMAEM-b-pHPMA produced oligonucleotide complexes with the most favourable physicochemical properties appropriate for in vivo applications.
  • These results indicate that for the systemic delivery of oligonucleotides the polymer-derived complexes are not stable enough for prolonged circulation.
  • [MeSH-major] Oligonucleotides, Antisense / chemistry. Oligonucleotides, Antisense / pharmacology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / biosynthesis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / chemistry. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Messenger / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Chemistry, Physical. DNA / chemistry. Electrophoresis, Agar Gel. Female. Intercalating Agents. Methacrylates. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Particle Size. Pharmaceutical Vehicles. Physicochemical Phenomena. Polyethylene Glycols / chemistry. Polymers. Propidium. Spectrometry, Fluorescence. Surface Properties. Tissue Distribution

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  • (PMID = 10767594.001).
  • [ISSN] 0928-0987
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of pharmaceutical sciences : official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Pharm Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] NETHERLANDS
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 2-(trimethylammonio)ethyl methacrylate; 0 / Intercalating Agents; 0 / Methacrylates; 0 / Oligonucleotides, Antisense; 0 / Pharmaceutical Vehicles; 0 / Polymers; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 27813-02-1 / hydroxypropyl methacrylate; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; 36015-30-2 / Propidium; 9007-49-2 / DNA
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71. Yu R, Koran A 3rd, Powers JM: Effect of processing temperature on the properties of a polyvinyl chloride maxillofacial elastomer. J Dent Res; 1983 Oct;62(10):1098-100
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  • [Title] Effect of processing temperature on the properties of a polyvinyl chloride maxillofacial elastomer.
  • Mechanical properties and color of a plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) maxillofacial elastomer were evaluated at processing temperatures from 140 to 190 degrees C.
  • [MeSH-major] Maxillofacial Prosthesis. Polyvinyl Chloride. Polyvinyls. Temperature
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemistry, Physical. Color. Elasticity. Hardness. Physicochemical Phenomena. Tensile Strength

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  • (PMID = 6578242.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-0345
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of dental research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dent. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE-04136
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Polyvinyls; 9002-86-2 / Polyvinyl Chloride
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72. Zaghloul M, Prakash V: Effect of succinylation on the functional and physicochemical properties of alpha-globulin, the major protein fraction from Sesamum indicum L. Nahrung; 2002 Oct;46(5):364-9
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  • [Title] Effect of succinylation on the functional and physicochemical properties of alpha-globulin, the major protein fraction from Sesamum indicum L.
  • alpha-Globulin the major protein fraction from Sesamum indicum was succinylated to different levels and the effect of the chemical modification was evaluated both on the functional and physicochemical properties.
  • The results suggest that the pH of minimum solubility shifted to the more acidic side (pH approximately 4.5-5.5) for the succinylated alpha-globulin whereas for control alpha-globulin the pH of minimum solubility was 6.5.
  • Bulk density, water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity, foam capacity and foam stability were evaluated in phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 0.5 M sodium chloride and all these properties showed increased values as a result of succinylation.
  • [MeSH-major] Alpha-Globulins / analysis. Plant Proteins / analysis. Sesamum / chemistry. Succinates / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemistry, Physical. Drug Stability. Emulsions. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Physicochemical Phenomena. Solubility. Spectrometry, Fluorescence. Temperature. Ultracentrifugation

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  • (PMID = 12428456.001).
  • [ISSN] 0027-769X
  • [Journal-full-title] Die Nahrung
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nahrung
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Alpha-Globulins; 0 / Emulsions; 0 / Plant Proteins; 0 / Succinates
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73. Ramesh V, Shihabuddeen Syed A, Jagannathan K, Rajarajan K: Growth, spectroscopic and physicochemical properties of bis mercury ferric chloride tetra thiocyanate: a nonlinear optical crystal. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc; 2013 May;108:236-43
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  • [Title] Growth, spectroscopic and physicochemical properties of bis mercury ferric chloride tetra thiocyanate: a nonlinear optical crystal.
  • Single crystal of bis mercury ferric chloride tetra thiocyanate [Hg2FeCl3(SCN)4; (MFCTC)] was grown from ethanol-water (3:1) mixed solvent using slow evaporation solvent technique (SEST) for the first time.
  • The coordination of transition metal ions with the SCN ligand is well-identified using FT-IR spectral analysis.
  • The ESR spectral profile of MFCTC was recorded from 298 K to 110K, which strongly suggests the incorporation of Fe(3+) ion and its environment with respect to SCN ligand.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorides / chemistry. Ferric Compounds / chemistry. Mercury Compounds / chemistry. Nonlinear Dynamics. Optical Phenomena. Thiocyanates / chemistry

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 23501934.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-3557
  • [Journal-full-title] Spectrochimica acta. Part A, Molecular and biomolecular spectroscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chlorides; 0 / Elements; 0 / Ferric Compounds; 0 / Mercury Compounds; 0 / Thiocyanates; U38V3ZVV3V / ferric chloride
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74. Palaghias G: Corrosion of dental amalgams in solutions of sodium chloride, sodium sulfide and ammonia. Scand J Dent Res; 1986 Jun;94(3):274-80
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  • [Title] Corrosion of dental amalgams in solutions of sodium chloride, sodium sulfide and ammonia.
  • Specimens were prepared from three different dental amalgams and were immersed in 0.5% aqueous solutions of sodium sulfide, ammonia and sodium chloride.
  • Zinc was the first element to be released in sodium chloride solutions.
  • [MeSH-major] Ammonia. Dental Amalgam. Sodium Chloride. Sulfides
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemistry, Physical. Copper / analysis. Corrosion. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Mercury / analysis. Physicochemical Phenomena. Solutions. Surface Properties. Time Factors. Zinc / analysis

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  • (PMID = 3461549.001).
  • [ISSN] 0029-845X
  • [Journal-full-title] Scandinavian journal of dental research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Scand J Dent Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] DENMARK
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Solutions; 0 / Sulfides; 451W47IQ8X / Sodium Chloride; 7664-41-7 / Ammonia; 789U1901C5 / Copper; 8049-85-2 / Dental Amalgam; C02T02993U / sodium sulfide; FXS1BY2PGL / Mercury; J41CSQ7QDS / Zinc
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75. Sah H: Protein behavior at the water/methylene chloride interface. J Pharm Sci; 1999 Dec;88(12):1320-5
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  • [Title] Protein behavior at the water/methylene chloride interface.
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the behaviors of proteins at the water/methylene chloride interface to better understand denaturing effects of emulsification upon proteins.
  • This study demonstrated that protein instability during emulsification was traced to consequences of the adsorption and conformational rearrangements of proteins at the water/methylene chloride interface.
  • [MeSH-major] Methylene Chloride / chemistry. Proteins / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemistry, Physical. Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid. Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel. Physicochemical Phenomena. Protein Conformation. Ribonucleases / chemistry. Serum Albumin / chemistry. Solvents. Surface Properties. Water

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  • (PMID = 10585229.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3549
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pharmaceutical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pharm Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proteins; 0 / Serum Albumin; 0 / Solvents; 059QF0KO0R / Water; 588X2YUY0A / Methylene Chloride; EC 3.1.- / Ribonucleases
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76. Costa FF, Resende JV, Abreu LR, Goff HD: Effect of calcium chloride addition on ice cream structure and quality. J Dairy Sci; 2008 Jun;91(6):2165-74
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  • [Title] Effect of calcium chloride addition on ice cream structure and quality.
  • The influence of calcium fortification by the addition of calcium chloride on quality parameters of ice cream based on physical properties was investigated, as was the effect of kappa-carrageenan at modifying the effects of this calcium fortification.
  • Four ice cream mixes of conventional composition, with added kappa-carrageenan (0 or 0.025%) and added calcium chloride (0 or 4.4 g L(-1) = 40 mM of added Ca(2+)), were prepared.
  • Modulated temperature-differential scanning calorimetry was used to investigate the effect of calcium chloride on the nucleation temperature, enthalpy of melting, and freezing point depression.
  • The results demonstrated that the addition of calcium chloride led to a substantial increase in ice crystal sizes and in fat partial coalescence, which were exacerbated by the addition of kappa-carrageenan.
  • These results can be explained by the interaction between Ca(2+) ions and casein micelles, rather than any effects on freezing point depression.
  • The calcium ions led to a more compact micelle, less serum beta-casein, and high fat destabilization, all of which would be expected to reduce macromolecular structure and volume occupancy in the unfrozen phase, which led to increased rates of ice recrystallization.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcium Chloride / pharmacology. Carrageenan / pharmacology. Food Technology. Food, Fortified. Ice Cream / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Calorimetry, Differential Scanning. Cattle. Chemistry, Physical. Crystallization. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Fats / analysis. Food Handling / methods. Milk Proteins / analysis. Particle Size. Physicochemical Phenomena. Temperature

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  • (PMID = 18487638.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-3198
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of dairy science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dairy Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fats; 0 / Milk Proteins; 9000-07-1 / Carrageenan; M4I0D6VV5M / Calcium Chloride
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77. Tavss EA, Gaffar A, King WJ: Studies on the formation of electrostatic complexes between benzethonium chloride and anionic polymers. J Pharm Sci; 1984 Aug;73(8):1148-52
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  • [Title] Studies on the formation of electrostatic complexes between benzethonium chloride and anionic polymers.
  • The chemistry of a mixture of benzethonium chloride and a copolymer of methoxyethylene-maleic anhydride was investigated.
  • Evidence from dialysis, pH measurements, and stoichiometry demonstrated that the benzethonium cation and the anion of the hydrolyzed copolymer formed an electrostatic complex.
  • The stability of the complex was pH dependent, and it did not form in 50% acetone.
  • The complex was decomposed by simulated saliva, mainly due to calcium and magnesium ions, but was unaffected by salivary proteins.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acetone. Chemistry, Physical. Dialysis. Drug Stability. Humans. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Magnesium / analysis. Molecular Weight. Physicochemical Phenomena. Polymers. Saliva / metabolism. Salivary Proteins and Peptides / analysis

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  • (PMID = 6548521.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3549
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pharmaceutical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pharm Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Maleates; 0 / Polyethylenes; 0 / Polymers; 0 / Quaternary Ammonium Compounds; 0 / Salivary Proteins and Peptides; 1364PS73AF / Acetone; 1VU15B70BP / Benzethonium; 9011-16-9 / poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride); I38ZP9992A / Magnesium
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78. Faccia M, Mastromatteo M, Conte A, Del Nobile MA: Influence of the different sodium chloride concentrations on microbiological and physico-chemical characteristics of mozzarella cheese. J Dairy Res; 2012 Nov;79(4):390-6
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  • [Title] Influence of the different sodium chloride concentrations on microbiological and physico-chemical characteristics of mozzarella cheese.
  • In this work the effects of addition of different amounts of sodium chloride, during cheese making, on shelf life of mozzarella cheese were evaluated.
  • The mozzarella cheese quality decay was assessed during storage at 9 °C by monitoring microbiological, sensory and physico-chemical changes in the product.
  • Results showed that Pseudomonas spp. growth was responsible for cheese unacceptability, whereas the sensory quality did not limit cheese shelf life.
  • On the contrary, high salt concentrations affected product shelf life, probably as a consequence of progressive solubilisation of cheese casein, due to the phenomenon of 'salting in'.
  • [MeSH-major] Cheese / analysis. Cheese / microbiology. Sodium Chloride / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Food Quality. Food Storage. Humans. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Odors. Physicochemical Phenomena. Pseudomonas / growth & development. Sensation. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 22874075.001).
  • [ISSN] 1469-7629
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dairy research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dairy Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 451W47IQ8X / Sodium Chloride
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79. Ye WP, Chien YW: Dual-controlled drug delivery across biodegradable copolymer. I. Delivery kinetics of levonorgestrel and estradiol through (caprolactone/lactide) block copolymer. Pharm Dev Technol; 1996 Apr;1(1):1-9
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  • Four block copolymers of caprolactone (CL) and dl-lactide (LA) with varying weight fractions were synthesized by living polymerization in the presence of Al/Zn bimetallic alkoxide complex.
  • The solubility of levonorgestrel (LNG) and estradiol (E2) in the copolymers was evaluated and found to increase exponentially with CL mole fraction.
  • Their aqueous solubilities were also studied and observed to increase linearly with the concentration of benzalkonium chloride (BAC), a solubilizer.
  • Permeation rates and release fluxes at steady state as well as the permeability and solubility of LNG and E2 in the copolymers suggest that these permeation parameters are affected by copolymer composition, which increase as the CL/LA ratio in the copolymer was increased.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biotransformation. Chemistry, Physical. Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid. Diffusion. Permeability. Physicochemical Phenomena. Solubility

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  • (PMID = 9552325.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-7450
  • [Journal-full-title] Pharmaceutical development and technology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pharm Dev Technol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contraceptive Agents, Female; 0 / Polyesters; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 5W7SIA7YZW / Levonorgestrel; 70524-20-8 / lactide-caprolactone copolymer
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80. Itakura K, Wada N: [Neutralization of static electricity charged on running vinyl chloride sheet by the use of soft beta-ray sources (author's transl)]. Radioisotopes; 1978 Apr;27(4):178-82
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  • [Title] [Neutralization of static electricity charged on running vinyl chloride sheet by the use of soft beta-ray sources (author's transl)].
  • A sheet of vinyl chloride of 0.1 mm in thickness was used as an example of electrified materials.
  • In the case of the running speed of 0.5 m/s frequently used in industry, the electrostatic charge below 3 X 10(6) C/m2, where corona discharger is not so effective, was also perfectly eliminated.
  • The use of 3H beta-ray source of 1 Ci was not satisfactory.
  • These results demonstrate that 147 Pm beta-ray source operates most efficiently as static eliminator when the charge density of material and/or its moving speed is not high.
  • [MeSH-major] Electricity. Electrons. Vinyl Chloride. Vinyl Compounds
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemistry, Physical. Evaluation Studies as Topic. Physicochemical Phenomena. Promethium. Radiation, Ionizing. Tritium

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  • (PMID = 663315.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8303
  • [Journal-full-title] Radioisotopes
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radioisotopes
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] JAPAN
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vinyl Compounds; 10028-17-8 / Tritium; WD06X94M2D / Vinyl Chloride; ZGV62C09KN / Promethium
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81. Korshunov AP, Suntsov VG, Pitaeva AN, Toropov VN, Doronin VP: [The physicochemical aspects of ion transport across dental enamel]. Stomatologiia (Mosk); 2000;79(4):6-8
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  • [Title] [The physicochemical aspects of ion transport across dental enamel].
  • [Transliterated title] Fiziko-khimicheskie aspekty transporta ionov cherez émal' zuba.
  • Passive transport of K+, Na+ Ca2+, Cl-, and F- ions through dental enamel was studied with due consideration for its porous structure.
  • The size of pores allows penetration of large molecules and ions through the enamel.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Chemistry, Physical. Cuspid. Diffusion. In Vitro Techniques. Ion Transport. Physicochemical Phenomena. Porosity. Swine

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  • (PMID = 10961103.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-1735
  • [Journal-full-title] Stomatologii︠a︡
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Stomatologiia (Mosk)
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] RUSSIA
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Electrolytes
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82. Lopez JL, García Einschlag FS, Rives CV, Villata LS, Capparelli AL: Physicochemical and toxicological studies on 4-chloro-3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid in aqueous solutions. Environ Toxicol Chem; 2004 May;23(5):1129-35
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  • [Title] Physicochemical and toxicological studies on 4-chloro-3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid in aqueous solutions.
  • Physicochemical characterization of hazardous compounds often is required for the development of structure-reactivity correlations.
  • Physical, chemical, and toxicological properties of target pollutants require determination for an efficient application of wastewater treatments.
  • In the present work, we chose a chloro-nitro-aromatic derivative (4-chloro-3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid [CDNBA]), as a model compound on which to perform physicochemical and toxicological studies.
  • Several properties of CDNBA are not available in the literature, although many aromatic nitro-compounds are considered hazardous materials.
  • Measurements of solubility in water, acid dissociation constant, and kinetic parameters for the nucleophilic substitution of chlorine atom in alkaline media are reported.
  • The bimolecular rate constant for the reaction of CDNB- and hydroxyl ion (HO) measured at room temperature and 0.1 M of ionic strength was 5.92/M x s, and the activation energy for this process was 70.7 +/- 3.4 kJ/mol.
  • Cytotoxicity assays with aqueous suspensions of Tetrahymena pyriformis showed lethal effects due to the pH change induced by CDNBA.
  • [MeSH-major] Chlorobenzoates / chemistry. Chlorobenzoates / toxicity. Water / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Acid-Base Equilibrium. Acids / chemistry. Acids / toxicity. Buffers. Chemistry, Physical. Chlorine / chemistry. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Hydroxides / chemistry. Kinetics. Photolysis. Physicochemical Phenomena. Solubility. Solutions. Structure-Activity Relationship. Temperature. Waste Disposal, Fluid / methods

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  • (PMID = 15180363.001).
  • [ISSN] 0730-7268
  • [Journal-full-title] Environmental toxicology and chemistry / SETAC
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Environ. Toxicol. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acids; 0 / Buffers; 0 / Chlorobenzoates; 0 / Hydroxides; 0 / Solutions; 059QF0KO0R / Water; 118-97-8 / 4-chloro-3,5-dinitrobenzoate; 4R7X1O2820 / Chlorine; 9159UV381P / hydroxide ion
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83. Jiang Z, Lv L, Zhang W, Du Q, Pan B, Yang L, Zhang Q: Nitrate reduction using nanosized zero-valent iron supported by polystyrene resins: role of surface functional groups. Water Res; 2011 Mar;45(6):2191-8
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  • To probe the role of host chemistry in formation and properties of the inside nano-zero valent iron (nZVI), we encapsulated nZVI within porous polystyrene resins functionalized with -CH(2)Cl and -CH(2)N(+)(CH(3))(3) respectively and obtained two hybrid nZVIs denoted Cl-S-ZVI and N-S-ZVI.
  • 14.5% (in Fe mass) of nZVI particles were distributed in N-S within a ring-like region (about 0.10 mm in thickness) of size around ∼ 5 nm, whereas only 4.0% of nZVI particles were entrapped near the outer surface of Cl-S of size > 20 nm.
  • -CH(2)N(+)(CH(3))(3) is more favorable than -CH(2)Cl to inhibit nZVI dissolution into Fe(2+) ions under acidic pH (3.0-5.5).
  • 97.2% of nitrate was converted into ammonium when introducing 0.12 g N-S-ZVI into 50 mL 50 mg N/L nitrate solution, while that for Cl-S-ZVI was 79.8% under identical Fe/N molar ratio.
  • Under pH = 2 of the effectiveness of nZVI was 88.8% for nitrate reduction, whereas that for Cl-S-ZVI was only 14.6% under similar conditions.
  • Nitrate reduction by N-S-ZVI exhibits relatively slower kinetics than Cl-S-ZVI, which may be related to different nZVI distribution of both composites.
  • The coexisting chloride and sulfate co-ions are favorable for the reactivity enhancement of N-S-ZVI whereas slightly unfavorable for Cl-S-ZVI.
  • The results demonstrated that support chemistry plays a significant role in formation and reactivity of the encapsulated nZVI, and may shed new light on design and fabrication of hybrid nZVIs for environmental remediation.
  • [MeSH-major] Iron / chemistry. Nanoparticles / chemistry. Nitrates / chemistry. Particle Size. Polystyrenes / chemistry. Resins, Synthetic / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Kinetics. Oxidation-Reduction. Physicochemical Phenomena. Solutions. Surface Properties. X-Ray Diffraction

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21316071.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-2448
  • [Journal-full-title] Water research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Water Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nitrates; 0 / Polystyrenes; 0 / Resins, Synthetic; 0 / Solutions; E1UOL152H7 / Iron
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84. Keowmaneechai E, McClements DJ: Influence of EDTA and citrate on physicochemical properties of whey protein-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions containing CaCl2. J Agric Food Chem; 2002 Nov 20;50(24):7145-53
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  • [Title] Influence of EDTA and citrate on physicochemical properties of whey protein-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions containing CaCl2.
  • The influence of chelating agents (disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) and sodium citrate) on the physicochemical properties of whey protein isolate (WPI)-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions containing calcium chloride was determined.
  • The calcium-binding characteristics of EDTA and citrate at 30 degrees C were characterized in aqueous solutions (20 mM Tris buffer, pH 7.0) by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC).
  • EDTA and citrate both bound calcium ions in a 1:1 ratio, but EDTA had a much higher binding constant.
  • Oil-in-water emulsions (pH 7.0) were prepared containing 6.94% (w/v) soybean oil, 0.35% (w/v) WPI, 0.02% (w/v) sodium azide, 20 mM Tris buffer, 10 mM CaCl(2), and 0-40 mM chelating agent.
  • Emulsions containing chelating agents had lower free calcium concentrations and more negatively charged droplets, indicating that the chelating agents improved emulsion stability by binding calcium ions.
  • EDTA could be used at lower concentrations than citrate because of its higher calcium ion binding constant.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcium Chloride / chemistry. Chelating Agents / pharmacology. Citric Acid / pharmacology. Edetic Acid / pharmacology. Emulsions / chemistry. Milk Proteins / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemistry, Physical. Drug Stability. Electrochemistry. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Particle Size. Physicochemical Phenomena. Rheology. Sodium Azide. Solutions. Soybean Oil / chemistry. Viscosity. Water. Whey Proteins

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  • (PMID = 12428974.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-8561
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of agricultural and food chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Agric. Food Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chelating Agents; 0 / Emulsions; 0 / Milk Proteins; 0 / Solutions; 0 / Whey Proteins; 059QF0KO0R / Water; 2968PHW8QP / Citric Acid; 8001-22-7 / Soybean Oil; 968JJ8C9DV / Sodium Azide; 9G34HU7RV0 / Edetic Acid; M4I0D6VV5M / Calcium Chloride
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85. Nestor I, Lazăr L: [Microbiological and physicochemical indicators of viral contamination of the drinking water]. Rev Ig Bacteriol Virusol Parazitol Epidemiol Pneumoftiziol Bacteriol Virusol Parazitol Epidemiol; 1989 Jul-Sep;34(3):207-24
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  • [Title] [Microbiological and physicochemical indicators of viral contamination of the drinking water].
  • [Transliterated title] Indicatorii microbiologici şi fizico-chimici ai contaminării virale a apei de băut.
  • An analysis is made of: physico-chemical indicators (water turbidity, residual chlorine, some products of the bacterial metabolism in the intestine), bacterial indicators (total and faecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, faecal streptococci, clostridia and other intestinal anaerobic bacteria, saprophytic mycobacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and some bacteriophages.
  • [MeSH-minor] Bacteria / isolation & purification. Bacteriophages / isolation & purification. Chemistry, Physical. Colony Count, Microbial. Feces / microbiology. Humans. Physicochemical Phenomena

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Water Pollution.
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  • (PMID = 2694300.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-4494
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista de igienă, bacteriologie, virusologie, parazitologie, epidemiologie, pneumoftiziologie. Bacteriologia, virusologia, parazitologia, epidemiologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Ig Bacteriol Virusol Parazitol Epidemiol Pneumoftiziol Bacteriol Virusol Parazitol Epidemiol
  • [Language] rum
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] ROMANIA
  • [Number-of-references] 127
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86. Nath K, Panchani S, Bhakhar MS, Chatrola S: Preparation of activated carbon from dried pods of Prosopis cineraria with zinc chloride activation for the removal of phenol. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int; 2013 Jun;20(6):4030-45
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  • [Title] Preparation of activated carbon from dried pods of Prosopis cineraria with zinc chloride activation for the removal of phenol.
  • In the present work, dried pods of Prosopis cineraria-a novel and low-cost agrowaste material-were used to prepare activated carbons by zinc chloride activation.
  • Batch adsorption experiments were carried out to study the effects of various physicochemical parameters such as initial phenol concentration, adsorbent dose, initial solution pH, and temperature.
  • The favorable pH for maximum phenol adsorption was 4.0.
  • [MeSH-major] Carbon / chemistry. Chlorides / chemistry. Phenol / isolation & purification. Prosopis / chemistry. Zinc Compounds / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Adsorption. Diffusion. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Kinetics. Physicochemical Phenomena. Solutions. Temperature. Thermodynamics. Waste Water / analysis

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  • (PMID = 23212266.001).
  • [ISSN] 1614-7499
  • [Journal-full-title] Environmental science and pollution research international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chlorides; 0 / Solutions; 0 / Waste Water; 0 / Zinc Compounds; 339NCG44TV / Phenol; 7440-44-0 / Carbon; 86Q357L16B / zinc chloride
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87. Pandey S, Kumar R, Sharma S, Nagpure NS, Srivastava SK, Verma MS: Acute toxicity bioassays of mercuric chloride and malathion on air-breathing fish Channa punctatus (Bloch). Ecotoxicol Environ Saf; 2005 May;61(1):114-20
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  • [Title] Acute toxicity bioassays of mercuric chloride and malathion on air-breathing fish Channa punctatus (Bloch).
  • Acute toxicity tests (96 h) were conducted in flow-through systems to determine the lethal toxicity of a heavy metal compound, mercuric chloride, and an organophosphorus pesticide, malathion, to air-breathing teleost fish, Channa punctatus (Bloch) and to study their behavior.
  • The results indicate that mercuric chloride is more toxic than malathion to the fish species under study.
  • [MeSH-major] Insecticides / toxicity. Malathion / toxicity. Mercuric Chloride / toxicity. Perciformes / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Behavior, Animal / drug effects. Chemistry, Physical. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Lethal Dose 50. Oxygen / analysis. Physicochemical Phenomena. Temperature. Water / chemistry

  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. MALATHION .
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  • (PMID = 15814317.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-6513
  • [Journal-full-title] Ecotoxicology and environmental safety
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Insecticides; 059QF0KO0R / Water; 53GH7MZT1R / Mercuric Chloride; S88TT14065 / Oxygen; U5N7SU872W / Malathion
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88. Burt HM, Cameron EC, Erber H, Price JD: Ion-exchange resins as potential phosphate-binding agents for renal failure patients: effect of the physicochemical properties of resins on phosphate and bile salt binding. J Pharm Sci; 1987 May;76(5):379-83
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  • [Title] Ion-exchange resins as potential phosphate-binding agents for renal failure patients: effect of the physicochemical properties of resins on phosphate and bile salt binding.
  • The effect of resin type, degree of cross-linking, bead size, and surface area on the phosphate and bile salt binding characteristics of five strongly basic Dowex anion-exchange resins in the chloride form was studied.
  • Dowex resins XY 40013 and XF 43254, with identical physicochemical properties, but different bead sizes and surface areas, bound similar amounts of the bile salt sodium taurocholate at all taurocholate concentrations, indicating that binding was not restricted to the surface sites on the resin bead.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Acids and Salts / metabolism. Ion Exchange Resins / metabolism. Phosphates / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Anions. Body Fluids / physiology. Chemistry, Physical. Gastric Juice / physiology. Humans. Intestines / metabolism. Phosphorus / metabolism. Physicochemical Phenomena. Solutions. Taurocholic Acid / metabolism

  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. PHOSPHORUS, ELEMENTAL .
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  • (PMID = 3656099.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3549
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pharmaceutical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pharm Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anions; 0 / Bile Acids and Salts; 0 / Ion Exchange Resins; 0 / Phosphates; 0 / Solutions; 27YLU75U4W / Phosphorus; 5E090O0G3Z / Taurocholic Acid
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89. Arakawa T, Timasheff SN: Mechanism of protein salting in and salting out by divalent cation salts: balance between hydration and salt binding. Biochemistry; 1984 Dec 4;23(25):5912-23
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  • The preferential interactions of proteins with solvent components were studied in concentrated aqueous solutions of the sulfate, acetate, and chloride salts of Mg2+, Ba2+, Ca2+, Mn2+ and Ni2+ [except for CaSO4, BaSO4, Mn-(OAc)2, and Ni(OAc)2], and results were compared with those of the Na+ salts.
  • It was found that, for all the salts, the preferential hydration increased in the order of Cl- less than CH3-COO- less than SO42- regardless of the cationic species used, in agreement with the anionic lyotropic series, and that the same parameter exhibited a tendency to increase in the order of Mn2+, Ni2+ less than Ca2+, Ba2+ less than Mg2+ less than Na+.
  • In conformity with this mechanism, the preferential interaction of MgCl2 was strongly pH dependent, because of the protein charge-dependent affinity of Mg2+ for proteins, while NaCl showed no pH dependence of the preferential interaction.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acetates. Barium / metabolism. Calcium / metabolism. Cations, Divalent. Chemistry, Physical. Chlorides. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Magnesium / metabolism. Manganese / metabolism. Muramidase / metabolism. Nickel / metabolism. Physicochemical Phenomena. Serum Albumin, Bovine / metabolism. Solubility. Solvents. Sulfates. Thermodynamics

  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. MAGNESIUM, ELEMENTAL .
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  • (PMID = 6525340.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-2960
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochemistry
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 16707; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM 14603
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acetates; 0 / Cations, Divalent; 0 / Chlorides; 0 / Proteins; 0 / Salts; 0 / Serum Albumin, Bovine; 0 / Solvents; 0 / Sulfates; 24GP945V5T / Barium; 42Z2K6ZL8P / Manganese; 7OV03QG267 / Nickel; EC 3.2.1.17 / Muramidase; I38ZP9992A / Magnesium; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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90. DuVal G, Swaisgood HE, Horton HR: Preparation and characterization of thionyl chloride-activated succinamidopropyl-glass as a covalent immobilization matrix. J Appl Biochem; 1984 Aug;6(4):240-50
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  • [Title] Preparation and characterization of thionyl chloride-activated succinamidopropyl-glass as a covalent immobilization matrix.
  • The reaction of succinamidopropyl-glass with nonaqueous thionyl chloride followed by washing with water produces an activated surface which reacts with amino and thiol groups under nondenaturing conditions.
  • Subsequent treatment of the covalently immobilized species with dilute hydroxylamine at pH 7 and room temperature releases about 80% of those molecules attached through amino groups and about 50% of those attached through thiol groups.
  • [MeSH-minor] Binding Sites. Chemistry, Physical. Chymotrypsinogen / isolation & purification. Glutamate Dehydrogenase / isolation & purification. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Hydroxylamine. Hydroxylamines / analysis. Physicochemical Phenomena. Temperature. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 6520073.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-7354
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of applied biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Appl. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM 28978
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Enzymes, Immobilized; 0 / Hydroxylamines; 0 / Succinates; 0 / Sulfur Oxides; 0 / succinamidopropyl-glass; 2FP81O2L9Z / Hydroxylamine; 4A8YJA13N4 / thionyl chloride; 9035-75-0 / Chymotrypsinogen; EC 1.4.1.2 / Glutamate Dehydrogenase
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91. Gomes AP, Cruz AG, Cadena RS, Celeghini RM, Faria JA, Bolini HM, Pollonio MA, Granato D: Manufacture of low-sodium Minas fresh cheese: effect of the partial replacement of sodium chloride with potassium chloride. J Dairy Sci; 2011 Jun;94(6):2701-6
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  • [Title] Manufacture of low-sodium Minas fresh cheese: effect of the partial replacement of sodium chloride with potassium chloride.
  • We investigated the effect of sodium reduction by partial substitution of sodium chloride (NaCl) with potassium chloride (KCl) on the manufacture of Minas fresh cheese during 21 d of refrigerated storage.
  • [MeSH-major] Cheese / analysis. Food Handling / methods. Potassium Chloride. Sodium, Dietary / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Physicochemical Phenomena. Taste

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Sodium.
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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21605739.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-3198
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of dairy science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dairy Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Sodium, Dietary; 660YQ98I10 / Potassium Chloride
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92. Lemmouchi Y, Schacht E, Kageruka P, De Deken R, Diarra B, Diall O, Geerts S: Biodegradable polyesters for controlled release of trypanocidal drugs: in vitro and in vivo studies. Biomaterials; 1998 Oct;19(20):1827-37
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  • Copolymers of epsilon-caprolactone and L-lactide P(CL-LLA), epsilon-caprolactone and D,L-lactide P(CL-DLLA) and epsilon-caprolactone and trimethylene carbonate P(CL-TMC) were synthesized.
  • The composition of comonomers and their sequence lengths were determined by means of 1H and 13C NMR measurements.
  • The in vitro degradation of the rods obtained by melt extrusion of the synthesized copolymers and the commercial homopolymers poly(epsilon-caprolactone) P(CL) and poly(D,L-lactide) P(DLLA) was carried out in phosphate buffer (PB) pH 7.4 at 37 degrees C.
  • The in vitro release of the selected drugs, isometamidium chloride (IMM) and ethidium bromide (EtBr), from such devices was carried out under the same conditions as used for the in vitro degradation.
  • Comparative in vitro release study from the different polymers showed that the release depends mainly on the physical properties of the polymer.
  • [MeSH-major] Biocompatible Materials / chemistry. Polyesters / chemistry. Trypanocidal Agents / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cattle. Chemistry, Physical. Delayed-Action Preparations. Ethidium / administration & dosage. Ethidium / chemistry. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular. Phenanthridines / administration & dosage. Phenanthridines / chemistry. Physicochemical Phenomena. Rabbits. Structure-Activity Relationship

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  • (PMID = 9855183.001).
  • [ISSN] 0142-9612
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomaterials
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomaterials
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biocompatible Materials; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Phenanthridines; 0 / Polyesters; 0 / Trypanocidal Agents; 70524-20-8 / lactide-caprolactone copolymer; 7NH28I651F / isometamidium chloride; EN464416SI / Ethidium
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93. Ghauri MS, Thomas JD: Evaluation of an ammonium ionophore for use in poly(vinyl chloride) membrane ion-selective electrodes: solvent mediator effects. Analyst; 1994 Nov;119(11):2323-6
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  • [Title] Evaluation of an ammonium ionophore for use in poly(vinyl chloride) membrane ion-selective electrodes: solvent mediator effects.
  • A macrotetrolide nonactin-based ammonium ionophore (AI) preparation containing 25% nonactin optimized for use in liquid membrane ion-selective electrodes was investigated for its possible use in poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) matrix membrane-type electrodes.
  • Nine different plasticizing solvent mediators were employed in the ammonium ion-selective membranes with PVC and the AI preparation.
  • The responses of these electrodes were found to improve in the presence of a background concentration of non-interfering calcium ions.
  • [MeSH-major] Ionophores. Membranes, Artificial. Polyvinyl Chloride. Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemistry, Physical. Electrochemistry / methods. Electrodes. Evaluation Studies as Topic. Physicochemical Phenomena. Potentiometry. Solvents

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  • (PMID = 7872484.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-2654
  • [Journal-full-title] The Analyst
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Analyst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ionophores; 0 / Membranes, Artificial; 0 / Quaternary Ammonium Compounds; 0 / Solvents; 9002-86-2 / Polyvinyl Chloride
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94. Pessina A, Thomas RM, Palmieri S, Luisi PL: An improved method for the purification of myrosinase and its physicochemical characterization. Arch Biochem Biophys; 1990 Aug 1;280(2):383-9
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  • [Title] An improved method for the purification of myrosinase and its physicochemical characterization.
  • Denaturation with guanidinium chloride was found to be irreversible although the enzyme has excellent storage characteristics in aqueous solution.
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemical Phenomena. Chemistry. Chromatography, Affinity

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  • (PMID = 2369130.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-9861
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of biochemistry and biophysics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Biochem. Biophys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Isoenzymes; EC 3.2.1.- / Glycoside Hydrolases; EC 3.2.1.147 / thioglucosidase
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95. Liu K, Lin X, Chen L, Huang L, Cao S, Wang H: Preparation of microfibrillated cellulose/chitosan-benzalkonium chloride biocomposite for enhancing antibacterium and strength of sodium alginate films. J Agric Food Chem; 2013 Jul 3;61(26):6562-7
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  • [Title] Preparation of microfibrillated cellulose/chitosan-benzalkonium chloride biocomposite for enhancing antibacterium and strength of sodium alginate films.
  • In order to improve these properties, a novel chitosan-benzalkonium chloride (C-BC) complex was prepared by ionic gelation using tripolyphosphate (TPP) as a coagulant, and a biocomposite obtained through the adsorption of C-BC complex on microfibrillated cellulose, MFC/C-BC, was then incorporated into a sodium alginate film.
  • [MeSH-major] Benzalkonium Compounds / chemistry. Biodegradable Plastics / chemistry. Cellulose / chemistry. Chitosan / chemistry. Disinfectants / chemistry. Food Packaging. Food Preservation
  • [MeSH-minor] Alginates / chemistry. Glucuronic Acid / chemistry. Hexuronic Acids / chemistry. Mechanical Phenomena. Nanotechnology / methods. Physicochemical Phenomena

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  • (PMID = 23750871.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-5118
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of agricultural and food chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Agric. Food Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Alginates; 0 / Benzalkonium Compounds; 0 / Biodegradable Plastics; 0 / Disinfectants; 0 / Hexuronic Acids; 8A5D83Q4RW / Glucuronic Acid; 8C3Z4148WZ / alginic acid; 9004-34-6 / Cellulose; 9012-76-4 / Chitosan
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96. Singh P, Arya N, Tiwari P, Suman A, Rai RK, Shrivastava AK, Solomon S: Use of glutaraldehyde and benzalkonium chloride for minimizing post-harvest physio-chemical and microbial changes responsible for sucrose losses in sugar cane. J Agric Food Chem; 2008 Aug 27;56(16):7176-83
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  • [Title] Use of glutaraldehyde and benzalkonium chloride for minimizing post-harvest physio-chemical and microbial changes responsible for sucrose losses in sugar cane.
  • An experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of glutaraldehyde and benzalkonium chloride for their effects on the microbial counts and physio-chemical changes responsible for sucrose losses.
  • Glutaraldehyde and benzalkonium chloride (1000 + 250 ppm) reduced the losses in sucrose content to 7.1% as compared to the 30.8% loss in the control, thus improving the performance by 76.9%.
  • [MeSH-major] Benzalkonium Compounds / pharmacology. Glutaral / pharmacology. Saccharum / chemistry. Saccharum / microbiology. Sucrose / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemistry, Physical. Ethylenes / metabolism. Food Handling. Food Preservation. Physicochemical Phenomena. beta-Fructofuranosidase / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18662009.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-5118
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of agricultural and food chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Agric. Food Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzalkonium Compounds; 0 / Ethylenes; 57-50-1 / Sucrose; 91GW059KN7 / ethylene; EC 3.2.1.26 / beta-Fructofuranosidase; T3C89M417N / Glutaral
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97. Kitagawa N, Kaminoh Y, Takasaki M, Ueda I: Use of ion-exchange membranes to measure transfer free energies of charged local anesthetics: correlation to anesthetic potency. J Pharm Sci; 1990 Apr;79(4):344-8
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  • [Title] Use of ion-exchange membranes to measure transfer free energies of charged local anesthetics: correlation to anesthetic potency.
  • Ion-selective electrodes, sensitive to local anesthetic cations, were prepared with carboxylated poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membranes.
  • The affinity of the drug to the ion-exchange membrane was measured by the electromotive force of the cation-selective electrodes.
  • By comparing drugs with similar structures, the transfer free energy per methylene moiety linked to the hydrophilic domain was found to be -1.7 kJ.mol-1, and that of Cl linked to the hydrophobic domain was -3.1 kJ.mol-1.
  • The ion-exchange membrane appears to mimic the surface properties of cell membranes.
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemistry, Physical. Dibucaine / analysis. Dibucaine / pharmacology. Ion Exchange. Membranes, Artificial. Physicochemical Phenomena. Plasticizers. Polyvinyl Chloride. Potassium. Sodium. Structure-Activity Relationship

  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. POTASSIUM, ELEMENTAL .
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  • (PMID = 2352147.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3549
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pharmaceutical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pharm Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM25716; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM27670
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anesthetics; 0 / Membranes, Artificial; 0 / Plasticizers; 9002-86-2 / Polyvinyl Chloride; 9NEZ333N27 / Sodium; L6JW2TJG99 / Dibucaine; RWP5GA015D / Potassium
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98. Nazar H, Fatouros DG, van der Merwe SM, Bouropoulos N, Avgouropoulos G, Tsibouklis J, Roldo M: Thermosensitive hydrogels for nasal drug delivery: the formulation and characterisation of systems based on N-trimethyl chitosan chloride. Eur J Pharm Biopharm; 2011 Feb;77(2):225-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Thermosensitive hydrogels for nasal drug delivery: the formulation and characterisation of systems based on N-trimethyl chitosan chloride.
  • Towards the development of a thermosensitive drug-delivery vehicle for nasal delivery, a systematic series of N-trimethyl chitosan chloride polymers, synthesised from chitosans of three different average molecular weights, have been co-formulated into a hydrogel with poly(ethylene glycol) and glycerophosphate.
  • [MeSH-major] Chitosan / chemistry. Drug Delivery Systems. Hydrogels
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Intranasal. Drug Carriers. Humans. Mucociliary Clearance. Phase Transition. Physicochemical Phenomena. Rheology. Temperature. Transition Temperature. Viscosity. Water / chemistry

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21130876.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-3441
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics : official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Pharm Biopharm
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Hydrogels; 0 / N-trimethyl chitosan chloride; 059QF0KO0R / Water; 9012-76-4 / Chitosan
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99. Núñez C, Bastida R, Macías A, Valencia L, Ribas J, Capelo JL, Lodeiro C: New dinuclear nickel(II) and iron(II) complexes with a macrocyclic ligand containing a N6S2 donor-set: synthesis, structural, MALDI-TOF-MS, magnetic and spectroscopic studies. Dalton Trans; 2010 Sep 7;39(33):7673-83
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  • In general both M(2+) centres are sited into the macrocyclic cavity coordinated to a pyridinic nitrogen atom, one sulfur atom, two secondary amine groups from the macrocyclic backbone and completing the coordination spheres with two solvent or anionic molecules in a distorted octahedral geometry, except in the case of [Ni(2)L(mu-Cl)(H(2)O)(2)](BF(4))(3).2H(2)O, where the metal ions are sited in the macrocyclic cavity coordinated to a pyridinic nitrogen atom, one sulfur atom, two secondary amine groups from the macrocyclic backbone, one water molecule and one chloride ion acting as a bridge between the two centres in a distorted octahedral geometry.
  • The magnetic properties of the nickel(II) complexes, [Ni(2)L(CH(3)CN)(4)](BF(4))(4).3.5CH(3)CN (11) and [Ni(2)L(mu-Cl)(H(2)O)(2)](BF(4))(3).2H(2)O (12) has been recorded in the solid state and indicates an unexpected ferromagnetic exchange in both cases, especially in compound 11 because no similar systems are previously reported in the literature presenting this magnetic behaviour.
  • [MeSH-major] Ferrous Compounds / chemistry. Iron / chemistry. Nickel / chemistry. Organometallic Compounds / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Amines / chemistry. Crystallography, X-Ray. Ligands. Magnetics. Metals / chemistry. Models, Molecular. Molecular Structure. Physicochemical Phenomena. Pyridines / chemistry. Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization. Spectrophotometry, Infrared. Spectrum Analysis. X-Ray Diffraction

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  • (PMID = 20664856.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-9234
  • [Journal-full-title] Dalton transactions (Cambridge, England : 2003)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dalton Trans
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Amines; 0 / Ferrous Compounds; 0 / Ligands; 0 / Metals; 0 / Organometallic Compounds; 0 / Pyridines; 7OV03QG267 / Nickel; E1UOL152H7 / Iron
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100. Kim JS, Yethiraj A: A diffusive anomaly of water in aqueous sodium chloride solutions at low temperatures. J Phys Chem B; 2008 Feb 14;112(6):1729-35
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A diffusive anomaly of water in aqueous sodium chloride solutions at low temperatures.
  • Molecular dynamics simulations are presented for the self-diffusion coefficient of water in aqueous sodium chloride solutions.
  • This suggests that sodium chloride, which is considered a structure-making salt at room temperature, becomes a structure-breaking salt at low temperatures.
  • A qualitative understanding of this effect can be obtained by considering the effect of ions on the residence time of water molecules near other water molecules.
  • A consideration of the freezing point depression of aqueous sodium chloride solutions suggests that the self-diffusion coefficient of water in supercooled sodium chloride solutions is always higher than that in pure (supercooled) water at the same temperature.
  • [MeSH-major] Sodium Chloride / chemistry. Water / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemistry, Physical. Diffusion. Freezing. Physicochemical Phenomena. Solutions. Temperature

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  • [ErratumIn] J Phys Chem B. 2010 Oct 14;114(40):13030
  • (PMID = 18215033.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-6106
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of physical chemistry. B
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Phys Chem B
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Solutions; 059QF0KO0R / Water; 451W47IQ8X / Sodium Chloride
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