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Items 1 to 100 of about 25234
1. |||||..... 51%  Goebel C, Aeby P, Ade N, Alépée N, Aptula A, Araki D, Dufour E, Gilmour N, Hibatallah J, Keller D, Kern P, Kirst A, Marrec-Fairley M, Maxwell G, Rowland J, Safford B, Schellauf F, Schepky A, Seaman C, Teichert T, Tessier N, Teissier S, Weltzien HU, Winkler P, Scheel J: Guiding principles for the implementation of non-animal safety assessment approaches for cosmetics: skin sensitisation. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol; 2012 Jun;63(1):40-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Guiding principles for the implementation of non-animal safety assessment approaches for cosmetics: skin sensitisation.
  • Characterisation of skin sensitisation potential is a key endpoint for the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients especially when significant dermal exposure to an ingredient is expected.
  • COLIPA (the European Cosmetics Association) funds an extensive programme of skin sensitisation research, method development and method evaluation and helped coordinate the early evaluation of the three test methods currently undergoing pre-validation.
  • In May 2010, a COLIPA scientific meeting was held to analyse to what extent skin sensitisation safety assessments for cosmetic ingredients can be made in the absence of animal data.
  • In order to propose guiding principles for the application and further development of non-animal safety assessment strategies it was evaluated how and when non-animal test methods, predictions based on physico-chemical properties (including in silico tools), threshold concepts and weight-of-evidence based hazard characterisation could be used to enable safety decisions.
  • Generation and assessment of potency information from alternative tools which at present is predominantly derived from the LLNA is considered the future key research area.
  • [MeSH-major] Allergens / toxicity. Animal Testing Alternatives. Consumer Product Safety. Cosmetics / toxicity. Hypersensitivity / etiology. Skin / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Risk Assessment / methods

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 22374415.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-0295
  • [Journal-full-title] Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Allergens; 0 / Cosmetics
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2. ||||...... 38%  Macfarlane M, Jones P, Goebel C, Dufour E, Rowland J, Araki D, Costabel-Farkas M, Hewitt NJ, Hibatallah J, Kirst A, McNamee P, Schellauf F, Scheel J: A tiered approach to the use of alternatives to animal testing for the safety assessment of cosmetics: skin irritation. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol; 2009 Jul;54(2):188-96
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A tiered approach to the use of alternatives to animal testing for the safety assessment of cosmetics: skin irritation.
  • Evaluation of the skin irritancy and corrosivity potential of an ingredient is a necessity in the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients.
  • To date, there are two formally validated alternatives to the rabbit Draize test for skin corrosivity in place, namely the rat skin transcutaneous electrical resistance (TER) assay and the Human Skin Model Test using EpiSkin, EpiDerm and SkinEthic reconstructed human epidermal equivalents.
  • For skin irritation, EpiSkin, EpiDerm and SkinEthic are validated as stand-alone test replacements for the rabbit Draize test.
  • In light of the deadlines established in the Cosmetics Directive for cessation of animal testing for cosmetic ingredients, a COLIPA scientific meeting was held in Brussels on 30th January, 2008 to review the use of alternative approaches and to set up a decision tree approach for their integration into tiered testing strategies for hazard and safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients and their use in products.
  • In conclusion, the safety assessments for skin irritation/corrosion of new chemicals for use in cosmetics can be confidently accomplished using exclusively alternative methods.
  • [MeSH-major] Animal Testing Alternatives / methods. Consumer Product Safety. Cosmetics / adverse effects. Skin / drug effects. Skin Irritancy Tests / methods

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  • (PMID = 19393278.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-0295
  • [Journal-full-title] Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cosmetics
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3. |......... 9%  Fluhr JW, Breternitz M, Kowatzki D, Bauer A, Bossert J, Elsner P, Hipler UC: Silver-loaded seaweed-based cellulosic fiber improves epidermal skin physiology in atopic dermatitis: safety assessment, mode of action and controlled, randomized single-blinded exploratory in vivo study. Exp Dermatol; 2010 Aug;19(8):e9-15
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Silver-loaded seaweed-based cellulosic fiber improves epidermal skin physiology in atopic dermatitis: safety assessment, mode of action and controlled, randomized single-blinded exploratory in vivo study.
  • BACKGROUND: The epidermal part of the skin is the major interface between the internal body and the external environment.
  • The skin has a specific physiology and is to different degrees adapted for protection against multiple exogenous stress factors.
  • Clothing is the material with the longest and most intensive contact to human skin.
  • It plays a critical role especially in inflammatory dermatoses or skin conditions with an increased susceptibility of bacterial and fungal infections like atopic dermatitis.
  • AIM OF THE STUDY: We studied the mode of action of silver-loaded seaweed-based cellulosic fiber and performed a broad safety assessment.
  • The principal aim was to analyse the effects of wearing the textile on epidermal skin physiology in 37 patients with atopic dermatitis in a controlled, randomized single-blinded in vivo study.
  • Safety assessment of these fibres showed no detectable release of silver ions.
  • Furthermore, ex vivo assessment after 24 h application both in healthy volunteers and patients with atopic dermatitis by sequential tape stripping and subsequently raster electron microscopy and energy dispersive microanalysis analysis revealed no detectable amounts of silver in any of stratum corneum layers.

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  • HSDB. structure - SILVER, ELEMENTAL.
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  • (PMID = 19645851.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species; 3M4G523W1G / Silver; 9004-34-6 / Cellulose
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View summary of articles of this page
1. Guiding principles for the implementation of non-animal safety assessment approaches for cosmetics: skin sensitisation. ...     Characterisation of skin sensitisation potential is a key endpoint for the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients especially when significant dermal exposure to an ingredient is expected.

2. A tiered approach to the use of alternatives to animal testing for the safety assessment of cosmetics: skin irritation. ...     Evaluation of the skin irritancy and corrosivity potential of an ingredient is a necessity in the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients.

3. Silver-loaded seaweed-based cellulosic fiber improves epidermal skin physiology in atopic dermatitis: safety assessment, mode of action and controlled, randomized single-blinded exploratory in vivo study.

5. The TEA is reported to function as a surfactant or pH adjuster; the related TEA-containing ingredients included in this safety assessment are reported to function as surfactants and hair- or skin-conditioning agents.

9. Combined with the data demonstrating little acute toxicity, no skin or ocular irritation, and no reproductive or developmental toxicity, these data form an adequate basis for reaching a conclusion that Dibutyl Adipate is safe as a cosmetic ingredient in the practices of use and concentrations as reflected in this safety assessment.

10. The data needed in order to complete the safety assessment of Cetethyl Morpholinium Ethosulfate include: methods of manufacture and impurities, especially nitrosamines; current concentration of use; skin penetration; if there is significant skin penetration, then both a 28-day dermal toxicity study to assess general skin and systemic toxicity and a reproductive and developmental toxicity study are needed; two genotoxicity studies, at least one in a mammalian system, if positive, then a 2-year dermal carcinogenisis study using National Toxicology Program (NTP) methods may be needed; ultraviolet (UV) absorption data, if significantly absorbed, then photosensitization data are needed; dermal irritation and sensitization; and ocular toxicity, if available.

11. Pig/minipig is considered a good model for the safety assessment of DNA vaccines due to the similarity to human skin.

15. McGuinness J et al: How to reduce hospital-acquired pressure ulcers on a neuroscience unit with a skin and wound assessment team.

16. Garau J et al: Current management of patients hospitalized with complicated skin and soft tissue infections across Europe (2010-2011): assessment of clinical practice patterns and real-life effectiveness of antibiotics from the REACH study. ...     Penson DF: Re: comparative effectiveness of skin antiseptic agents in reducing surgical site infections: a report from the washington state surgical care and outcomes assessment program.

18. MacKay C et al: From pathways to people: applying the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) for skin sensitization to risk assessment. ...     Chen WY et al: Risk assessment of excess drug and sunscreen absorption via skin with ablative fractional laser resurfacing : optimization of the applied dose for postoperative care. ...     Mackay C et al: From pathways to people: applying the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) for skin sensitization to risk assessment.

19. Rovida C et al: Advanced tests for skin and respiratory sensitization assessment.

21. van Rijsingen MC et al: The current and future role of general practitioners in skin cancer care: an assessment of 268 general practitioners.

24. Aldridge RB et al: The importance of a full clinical examination: assessment of index lesions referred to a skin cancer clinic without a total body skin examination would miss one in three melanomas.

26. A skin sensitization safety assessment of a new bleach activator technology in detergent applications.


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4. |......... 9%  Endres JR, Clewell A, Jade KA, Farber T, Hauswirth J, Schauss AG: Safety assessment of a proprietary preparation of a novel Probiotic, Bacillus coagulans, as a food ingredient. Food Chem Toxicol; 2009 Jun;47(6):1231-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Safety assessment of a proprietary preparation of a novel Probiotic, Bacillus coagulans, as a food ingredient.
  • A toxicological safety assessment was performed on a proprietary preparation of B. coagulans - GanedenBC(30) - a novel probiotic.
  • Seven toxicologic studies were conducted and included: in vitro bacterial reverse mutation assay; in vitro chromosomal aberration assay; micronucleus assay in mice; acute and 90 day subchronic repeated oral toxicity studies were conducted in Wistar Crl:(WI) BR rats; acute eye and skin irritation studies were conducted in rabbits.
  • The results of this toxicological safety assessment indicate that GanedenBC(30)B. coagulans does not demonstrate mutagenic, clastogenic, or genotoxic effects.
  • Since the concentration of the cell mass used in the 90-day study was 1.36 x 10(11) CFUs/g, this corresponds to 95.2 x 10(11) CFUs for a 70 kg human and since the suggested human dose is in the range of 100 x 10(6) to 3 x 10(9) CFUs, this gives a safety factor ranging from 3173 to 95,200 times.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Blood Chemical Analysis. Chromosome Aberrations / drug effects. Eye / drug effects. Eye / pathology. Food. Irritants / toxicity. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Micronucleus Tests. Mutagenicity Tests. No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level. Rabbits. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Safety. Skin / drug effects. Skin / pathology. Weight Gain / drug effects

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  • [Cites] Lett Appl Microbiol. 2001 Jul;33(1):84-8 [11442822.001]
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  • (PMID = 19248815.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-6351
  • [Journal-full-title] Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Food Chem. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] In Vitro; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Irritants
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2726964
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5. |||....... 30%  Fiume MM, Heldreth B, Bergfeld WF, Belsito DV, Hill RA, Klaassen CD, Liebler D, Marks JG Jr, Shank RC, Slaga TJ, Snyder PW, Andersen FA: Safety assessment of triethanolamine and triethanolamine-containing ingredients as used in cosmetics. Int J Toxicol; 2013 May-Jun;32(3 Suppl):59S-83S
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Safety assessment of triethanolamine and triethanolamine-containing ingredients as used in cosmetics.
  • The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel assessed the safety of triethanolamine (TEA) and 31 related TEA-containing ingredients as used in cosmetics.
  • The TEA is reported to function as a surfactant or pH adjuster; the related TEA-containing ingredients included in this safety assessment are reported to function as surfactants and hair- or skin-conditioning agents.
  • Although data were not available for all the ingredients, the panel relied on the information available for TEA in conjunction with previous safety assessments of components of TEA-containing ingredients.
  • These data could be extrapolated to support the safety of all included ingredients.
  • [MeSH-major] Consumer Product Safety. Cosmetics / toxicity. Ethanolamines / toxicity

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  • HSDB. structure - TRIETHANOLAMINE.
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  • (PMID = 23696578.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-874X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cosmetics; 0 / Ethanolamines; 9O3K93S3TK / triethanolamine
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; triethanolamine
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6. |......... 8%  Nabeshi H, Yoshikawa T, Imazawa T, Tsunoda S, Tsutsumi Y: [Safety assessment of nanomaterials using toxicokinetics and toxicoproteome analysis]. Yakugaku Zasshi; 2010 Apr;130(4):465-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Safety assessment of nanomaterials using toxicokinetics and toxicoproteome analysis].
  • For industrial development and affluent society establishment that enjoyed only a benefit of nanomaterials, it is urgent to gather information of the properties and the biological effects, and to establish the standard safety evaluation method of nanomaterials.
  • So, we are analyzing association among property, biodistribution and biological effects of nanomaterials to search for the safety biomarker (functional-, molecular- and biochemical-biomarker) using nanosilicas (nSP) as a standard nanomaterial.
  • Because nSP shows high uniform dispersibility and is already used in medicine, cosmetics and food additive, the results of this study are useful to extrapolate it to other nanomaterials and to make practicable as safety biomarker.
  • In this report, we show the latest knowledge about the linkage information among property, biodistribution and biological effects of nSP by toxicokinetics and toxicoproteomics, and the search study of safety biomarker based on these basic information.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biological Markers. Drug Design. Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions. Humans. Proteome. Proteomics. Skin Absorption

  • HSDB. structure - SILICON DIOXIDE.
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  • (PMID = 20371987.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-6903
  • [Journal-full-title] Yakugaku zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Yakugaku Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biological Markers; 0 / Proteome; 7631-86-9 / Silicon Dioxide
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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7. ||||||||.. 83%  Cooper IF, Siadaty MS: 'Carbohydrates' associated with 'Skin Specimen Source Code': Top Publications. BioMedLib Review; Carbohydrate;SkinSpecimenSource:705703597. ISSN: 2331-5717. 2014/7/22
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  • [Title] 'Carbohydrates' associated with 'Skin Specimen Source Code': Top Publications.
  • [Transliterated title]
  • Background: There are articles published each month which present 'Carbohydrate' for 'skin specimen source code'.
  • Finding such articles is important for researchers, clinicians, and patients.
  • However these articles are spread across thousands of journals, and there are many types of 'Carbohydrate'.
  • This makes searching and locating the relevant publications a challenge.
  • We have used BioMedLib's semantic search technology to address the issue, and gathered all the pertinent publications in this review article.
  • Methods: We categorized the publications we found into two groups.
  • We used the strength of textual-association to separate the groups.
  • In group one there are publications with the strongest evidence of association. We focused finding the most relevant publications pertinent to our goal, rather than combining them into a conclusion section. Such textual synthesis will be the focus of our next project.
  • Results: Group one includes 146 publications, and group two 10743 publications.
  • Here are the top 10.
  • Cooper IF et al: 'Carbohydrates' associated with 'Skin Specimen Source Code': Top Publications.
  • Nie W et al: Tamarind Seed Xyloglucans Promote Proliferation and Migration of Human Skin Cells through Internalization via Stimulation of Proproliferative Signal Transduction Pathways.
  • Zhou MN et al: Dermal mesenchymal stem cells (DMSCs) inhibit skin-homing CD8+ T cell activity, a determining factor of vitiligo patients' autologous melanocytes transplantation efficiency.
  • Ye Y et al: In Vivo Antioxidant and Anti-Skin-Aging Activities of Ethyl Acetate Extraction from Idesia polycarpa Defatted Fruit Residue in Aging Mice Induced by D-Galactose.
  • Li Y et al: Age-dependent alterations of decorin glycosaminoglycans in human skin.
  • Kenny JG et al: Mannitol utilisation is required for protection of Staphylococcus aureus from human skin antimicrobial fatty acids.
  • Wang PC et al: Lauroyl/palmitoyl glycol chitosan gels enhance skin delivery of magnesium ascorbyl phosphate.
  • Chang J et al: Investigation of the skin repair and healing mechanism of N-carboxymethyl chitosan in second-degree burn wounds.
  • Chen SH et al: Assessment of reinforced poly(ethylene glycol) chitosan hydrogels as dressings in a mouse skin wound defect model.
  • Almeida N et al: Rheological studies of polysaccharides for skin scaffolds.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2014 Siadaty and Cooper; licensee BioMedLib LLC.
  • (UID = 705703597.001).
  • [ISSN] 2331-5717
  • [Journal-full-title] BioMedLib Review
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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8. |......... 9%  Farber TM, Clewell AE, Endres JR, Hauswirth J, Van Gemert M, Schauss AG, Sheane CA: Safety assessment of a novel ingredient for removable chewing gum. Food Chem Toxicol; 2010 Mar;48(3):831-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Safety assessment of a novel ingredient for removable chewing gum.
  • In a toxicological safety assessment, Rev7 was found to be non-mutagenic in the AMES assay.
  • Lastly, Rev7 did not demonstrate skin-sensitizing properties in the murine local lymph node assay.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Butylated Hydroxytoluene / analysis. Erythrocytes / drug effects. Erythrocytes / ultrastructure. Female. Local Lymph Node Assay. Male. Metals, Heavy / analysis. Mice. Micronucleus Tests. Mutagenicity Tests. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Safety. Salmonella typhimurium / drug effects. Salmonella typhimurium / genetics. Solvents / analysis. Thymidine Kinase / drug effects. Thymidine Kinase / genetics

  • HSDB. structure - 2,6-DI-T-BUTYL-P-CRESOL.
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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20035819.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-6351
  • [Journal-full-title] Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Food Chem. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chewing Gum; 0 / Metals, Heavy; 0 / Polymers; 0 / Solvents; 0 / Succinates; 1P9D0Z171K / Butylated Hydroxytoluene; EC 2.7.1.21 / Thymidine Kinase
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9. |||....... 30%  Andersen A: Amended final report of the safety assessment of dibutyl adipate as used in cosmetics. Int J Toxicol; 2006;25 Suppl 1:129-34
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Amended final report of the safety assessment of dibutyl adipate as used in cosmetics.
  • Dibutyl Adipate, the diester of butyl alcohol and adipic acid, functions as a plasticizer, skin-conditioning agent, and solvent in cosmetic formulations.
  • Clinical patch tests confirmed the absence of skin irritation found in animal tests.
  • The available data demonstrate no skin sensitization or cumulative skin irritation, no comedogenicity, and no genotoxicity.
  • Combined with the data demonstrating little acute toxicity, no skin or ocular irritation, and no reproductive or developmental toxicity, these data form an adequate basis for reaching a conclusion that Dibutyl Adipate is safe as a cosmetic ingredient in the practices of use and concentrations as reflected in this safety assessment.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Dogs. Eye / drug effects. Female. Guinea Pigs. Humans. Male. Mice. Pregnancy. Rabbits. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Reproduction / drug effects. Skin / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 16835133.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-5818
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adipates; 0 / Cosmetics; F4K100DXP3 / dibutyl adipate
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10. |||....... 29%  Johnson RS: Final report on the safety assessment of Cetethyl Morpholinium Ethosulfate. Int J Toxicol; 2001;20 Suppl 3:99-102
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Final report on the safety assessment of Cetethyl Morpholinium Ethosulfate.
  • No other safety test data on this ingredient were available.
  • These data were clearly insufficient to support the safety of Cetethyl Morpholinium Ethosulfate in cosmetics.
  • Data available on Morpholine were summarized, but these data themselves were insufficient to support safety.
  • The data needed in order to complete the safety assessment of Cetethyl Morpholinium Ethosulfate include: methods of manufacture and impurities, especially nitrosamines; current concentration of use; skin penetration; if there is significant skin penetration, then both a 28-day dermal toxicity study to assess general skin and systemic toxicity and a reproductive and developmental toxicity study are needed; two genotoxicity studies, at least one in a mammalian system, if positive, then a 2-year dermal carcinogenisis study using National Toxicology Program (NTP) methods may be needed; ultraviolet (UV) absorption data, if significantly absorbed, then photosensitization data are needed; dermal irritation and sensitization; and ocular toxicity, if available.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Eye Diseases / chemically induced. Humans. Inhalation Exposure / adverse effects. Nitrosamines / adverse effects. Nitrosamines / toxicity. Skin Diseases / chemically induced. Toxicity Tests, Acute. United States. United States Food and Drug Administration / standards

  • HSDB. structure - MORPHOLINE.
  • HSDB. structure - N-NITROSOMORPHOLINE.
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  • (PMID = 11766137.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-5818
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hair Preparations; 0 / Morpholines; 0 / Nitrosamines; 0 / Surface-Active Agents; 3L25FO7FN7 / N-nitrosomorpholine; 48SOX9D9O8 / cetethyl morpholinium; 8B2ZCK305O / morpholine
  • [Number-of-references] 8
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11. ||........ 24%  Dincer Z, Jones S, Haworth R: Preclinical safety assessment of a DNA vaccine using particle-mediated epidermal delivery in domestic pig, minipig and mouse. Exp Toxicol Pathol; 2006 Jul;57(5-6):351-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Preclinical safety assessment of a DNA vaccine using particle-mediated epidermal delivery in domestic pig, minipig and mouse.
  • An important aspect of the preclinical safety assessment of DNA vaccines is the selection of a pharmacologically relevant animal model for the assessment of antigen expression, optimization of delivery and formulation of the plasmid.
  • Pig/minipig is considered a good model for the safety assessment of DNA vaccines due to the similarity to human skin.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS Vaccines / adverse effects. Biolistics. DNA, Viral / toxicity. Drug Evaluation, Preclinical. Skin / drug effects. Swine, Miniature. Vaccines, DNA / adverse effects

  • HSDB. structure - GOLD.
  • ExactAntigen/Labome. author profiles.
  • HIV InSite. disease organizations - HIV InSite .
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  • (PMID = 16713213.001).
  • [ISSN] 0940-2993
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and toxicologic pathology : official journal of the Gesellschaft für Toxikologische Pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Toxicol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AIDS Vaccines; 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / HIV Antibodies; 0 / Vaccines, DNA; 7440-57-5 / Gold
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12. |......... 11%  Johnson W Jr, Bergfeld WF, Belsito DV, Hill RA, Klaassen CD, Liebler DC, Marks JG Jr, Shank RC, Slaga TJ, Snyder PW, Andersen FA: Safety assessment of cyclomethicone, cyclotetrasiloxane, cyclopentasiloxane, cyclohexasiloxane, and cycloheptasiloxane. Int J Toxicol; 2011 Dec;30(6 Suppl):149S-227S
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Safety assessment of cyclomethicone, cyclotetrasiloxane, cyclopentasiloxane, cyclohexasiloxane, and cycloheptasiloxane.
  • Cyclomethicone (mixture) and the specific chain length cyclic siloxanes (n = 4-7) reviewed in this safety assessment are cyclic dimethyl polysiloxane compounds.
  • These ingredients have the skin/hair conditioning agent function in common.
  • Minimal percutaneous absorption was associated with these ingredients and the available data do not suggest skin irritation or sensitization potential.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Consumer Product Safety. Humans. Risk Assessment

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Cosmetics.
  • ResearchGate. author profiles.
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  • (PMID = 22247236.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-874X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cosmetics; 0 / Siloxanes
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13. |......... 11%  Kraus AL, Munro IC, Orr JC, Binder RL, LeBoeuf RA, Williams GM: Benzoyl peroxide: an integrated human safety assessment for carcinogenicity. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol; 1995 Feb;21(1):87-107
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Benzoyl peroxide: an integrated human safety assessment for carcinogenicity.
  • Topical benzoyl peroxide has been used in the treatment of acne for over 30 years, with no reports of adverse effects that could be related to skin carcinogenesis.
  • Two case-control epidemiological studies have found a lack of association between the specific use of benzoyl peroxide and skin cancer.
  • An increase in skin carcinomas was reported in 1 study in which benzoyl peroxide in acetone was applied to the skin of SENCAR mice for a 1-year period; however, this study did not employ adequate control groups to fully understand the unusual findings, and the results were inconsistent with those of 6 other similar studies.
  • While benzoyl peroxide is not a complete carcinogen in animals and has weak or no mutagenic potential, it has been found to be a tumor promoter in mouse skin using experimental two-stage models of carcinogenesis.
  • However, the results of promotion studies with benzoyl peroxide do not carry significant weight for human safety assessment as evidenced by (i) the absence of demonstrated carcinogenicity in humans of a number of rodent tumor promoters despite long-term human exposure;.
  • (ii) the observation that tumor promotion in mouse skin occurs only under specific experimental conditions and predominantly in highly sensitive strains;.
  • (iii) clinical use scenarios markedly different from the conditions resulting in tumor promotion in mouse skin; and (iv) the significant physiological differences between mouse and human skin.
  • Thus, to date, available scientific evidence does not allow the results of these rodent promotion studies to be meaningfully applied to human safety assessment.
  • As such, significant scientific progress must be made before human safety estimations can be derived from rodent promotion data.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
  • [MeSH-minor] Acne Vulgaris / drug therapy. Animals. Carcinogenicity Tests. Cocarcinogenesis. Cricetinae. DNA Damage. Female. Humans. Male. Mice. Rats. Risk Assessment. Skin Neoplasms / chemically induced

  • HSDB. structure - BENZOYL PEROXIDE.
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  • (PMID = 7784640.001).
  • [ISSN] 0273-2300
  • [Journal-full-title] Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] W9WZN9A0GM / Benzoyl Peroxide
  • [Number-of-references] 131
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14. |......... 11%  Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel: Final safety assessment of Coal Tar as used in cosmetics. Int J Toxicol; 2008;27 Suppl 2:1-24
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Final safety assessment of Coal Tar as used in cosmetics.
  • Coal Tar is absorbed through the skin of animals and humans and is systemically distributed.
  • Chronic exposure of mice to Coal Tar significantly decreased survival and liver neoplasms were seen in a significant dose-related trend; in other studies using mice lung tumors and perianal skin cancers were found.
  • Additional data needed to make a safety assessment include product types in which Coal Tar is used (other than as an OTC drug ingredient), use concentrations, and the maximum concentration that does not induce a biological effect in users.

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Cosmetics.
  • HSDB. structure - COAL TAR.
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  • (PMID = 18830861.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-874X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cosmetics; 8007-45-2 / Coal Tar
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15. ||||||||.. 82%  Cooper IF, Siadaty MS: 'Groups' associated with 'Skin Specimen Source Code': Top Publications. BioMedLib Review; Group;SkinSpecimenSource:706113977. ISSN: 2331-5717. 2014/6/23
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  • [Title] 'Groups' associated with 'Skin Specimen Source Code': Top Publications.
  • [Transliterated title]
  • Background: There are articles published each month which present 'Group' for 'skin specimen source code'.
  • Finding such articles is important for researchers, clinicians, and patients.
  • However these articles are spread across thousands of journals, and there are many types of 'Group'.
  • This makes searching and locating the relevant publications a challenge.
  • We have used BioMedLib's semantic search technology to address the issue, and gathered all the pertinent publications in this review article.
  • Methods: We categorized the publications we found into two groups.
  • We used the strength of textual-association to separate the groups.
  • In group one there are publications with the strongest evidence of association. We focused finding the most relevant publications pertinent to our goal, rather than combining them into a conclusion section. Such textual synthesis will be the focus of our next project.
  • Results: Group one includes 35 publications, and group two 120248 publications.
  • Here are the top 10.
  • Ishiy PS et al: Skin diseases reported by workers from UNESP campus at Rubião Jr, Botucatu-SP (Brazil).
  • Cubitt JJ et al: Melanoma in buckinghamshire: data from the inception of the skin cancer multidisciplinary team.
  • Fontanilla JM et al: Outbreak of skin infections in college football team members due to an unusual strain of community-acquired methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus.
  • Romano R et al: Outbreak of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus skin infections among a collegiate football team.
  • McGuinness J et al: How to reduce hospital-acquired pressure ulcers on a neuroscience unit with a skin and wound assessment team.
  • Ryan JL et al: Post-treatment skin reactions reported by cancer patients differ by race, not by treatment or expectations.
  • Ratliff CR: Early Peristomal Skin Complications Reported by WOC Nurses.
  • Hierner R et al: Skin grafting and wound healing-the "dermato-plastic team approach".
  • Hjollund NH et al: Diurnal scrotal skin temperature and semen quality. The Danish First Pregnancy Planner Study Team.
  • Gewandter JS et al: Characterization of skin reactions and pain reported by patients receiving radiation therapy for cancer at different sites.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2014 Siadaty and Cooper; licensee BioMedLib LLC.
  • (UID = 706113977.001).
  • [ISSN] 2331-5717
  • [Journal-full-title] BioMedLib Review
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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16. ||||||||.. 82%  Cooper IF, Siadaty MS: 'Occupational Activities' associated with 'Skin Specimen Source Code': Top Publications. BioMedLib Review; OccupationalActivity;SkinSpecimenSource:706122397. ISSN: 2331-5717. 2014/1/23
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  • [Title] 'Occupational Activities' associated with 'Skin Specimen Source Code': Top Publications.
  • [Transliterated title]
  • Background: There are articles published each month which present 'Occupational Activity' for 'skin specimen source code'.
  • Finding such articles is important for researchers, clinicians, and patients.
  • However these articles are spread across thousands of journals, and there are many types of 'Occupational Activity'.
  • This makes searching and locating the relevant publications a challenge.
  • We have used BioMedLib's semantic search technology to address the issue, and gathered all the pertinent publications in this review article.
  • Methods: We categorized the publications we found into two groups.
  • We used the strength of textual-association to separate the groups.
  • In group one there are publications with the strongest evidence of association. We focused finding the most relevant publications pertinent to our goal, rather than combining them into a conclusion section. Such textual synthesis will be the focus of our next project.
  • Results: Group one includes 47 publications, and group two 38014 publications.
  • Here are the top 10.
  • Cubitt JJ et al: Melanoma in buckinghamshire: data from the inception of the skin cancer multidisciplinary team.
  • Ulrich C et al: Skin changes following organ transplantation: an interdisciplinary challenge.
  • Marquardt T: Managing skin infections in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children.
  • Chang WY et al: Computer-aided diagnosis of skin lesions using conventional digital photography: a reliability and feasibility study.
  • Ko J et al: First imported case of skin infection caused by PVL-positive ST30 community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clone in a returning Korean traveler from the Philippines.
  • Garau J et al: Current management of patients hospitalized with complicated skin and soft tissue infections across Europe (2010-2011): assessment of clinical practice patterns and real-life effectiveness of antibiotics from the REACH study.
  • Hakkarainen TW et al: Comparative effectiveness of skin antiseptic agents in reducing surgical site infections: a report from the Washington State Surgical Care and Outcomes Assessment Program.
  • Penson DF: Re: comparative effectiveness of skin antiseptic agents in reducing surgical site infections: a report from the washington state surgical care and outcomes assessment program.
  • Pareek M et al: Community-based evaluation of immigrant tuberculosis screening using interferon γ release assays and tuberculin skin testing: observational study and economic analysis.
  • Yeo WH et al: Multifunctional epidermal electronics printed directly onto the skin.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2014 Siadaty and Cooper; licensee BioMedLib LLC.
  • (UID = 706122397.001).
  • [ISSN] 2331-5717
  • [Journal-full-title] BioMedLib Review
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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17. ||||||||.. 82%  Cooper IF, Siadaty MS: 'Foods' associated with 'Skin Specimen Source Code': Top Publications. BioMedLib Review; Food;SkinSpecimenSource:705580470. ISSN: 2331-5717. 2014/7/23
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  • [Title] 'Foods' associated with 'Skin Specimen Source Code': Top Publications.
  • [Transliterated title]
  • Background: There are articles published each month which present 'Food' for 'skin specimen source code'.
  • Finding such articles is important for researchers, clinicians, and patients.
  • However these articles are spread across thousands of journals, and there are many types of 'Food'.
  • This makes searching and locating the relevant publications a challenge.
  • We have used BioMedLib's semantic search technology to address the issue, and gathered all the pertinent publications in this review article.
  • Methods: We categorized the publications we found into two groups.
  • We used the strength of textual-association to separate the groups.
  • In group one there are publications with the strongest evidence of association. We focused finding the most relevant publications pertinent to our goal, rather than combining them into a conclusion section. Such textual synthesis will be the focus of our next project.
  • Results: Group one includes 70 publications, and group two 30490 publications.
  • Here are the top 10.
  • Sparr E et al: Controlling the hydration of the skin though the application of occluding barrier creams.
  • Di Franco R et al: Preventing the acute skin side effects in patients treated with radiotherapy for breast cancer: the use of corneometry in order to evaluate the protective effect of moisturizing creams.
  • Ikehata H et al: Action spectrum analysis of UVR genotoxicity for skin: the border wavelengths between UVA and UVB can bring serious mutation loads to skin.
  • Jiang PL et al: Dried fruit of the Luffa sponge as a source of chitin for applications as skin substitutes.
  • Xin T et al: Assessment of a protein cocktail-based skin test for bovine tuberculosis in a double-blind field test in cattle.
  • Dolu N et al: The effects of the enriched environment on sympathetic skin response in pentylenetetrazol-kindled rats.
  • Lindgren J et al: Skin pigmentation provides evidence of convergent melanism in extinct marine reptiles.
  • Kawano K et al: Oral intake of beet extract provides protection against skin barrier impairment in hairless mice.
  • King JD et al: Peptidomic analysis of skin secretions provides insight into the taxonomic status of the African clawed frogs Xenopus victorianus and Xenopus laevis sudanensis (Pipidae).
  • Tan JW et al: Baked egg food challenges - clinical utility of skin test to baked egg and ovomucoid in children with egg allergy.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2014 Siadaty and Cooper; licensee BioMedLib LLC.
  • (UID = 705580470.001).
  • [ISSN] 2331-5717
  • [Journal-full-title] BioMedLib Review
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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18. |||||||... 71%  Cooper IF, Siadaty MS: 'Health Care Activities' associated with 'Skin Specimen Source Code': Top Publications. BioMedLib Review; HealthCareActivity;SkinSpecimenSource:706111049. ISSN: 2331-5717. 2014/6/23
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  • [Title] 'Health Care Activities' associated with 'Skin Specimen Source Code': Top Publications.
  • [Transliterated title]
  • Background: There are articles published each month which present 'Health Care Activity' for 'skin specimen source code'.
  • Finding such articles is important for researchers, clinicians, and patients.
  • However these articles are spread across thousands of journals, and there are many types of 'Health Care Activity'.
  • This makes searching and locating the relevant publications a challenge.
  • We have used BioMedLib's semantic search technology to address the issue, and gathered all the pertinent publications in this review article.
  • Methods: We categorized the publications we found into two groups.
  • We used the strength of textual-association to separate the groups.
  • In group one there are publications with the strongest evidence of association. We focused finding the most relevant publications pertinent to our goal, rather than combining them into a conclusion section. Such textual synthesis will be the focus of our next project.
  • Results: Group one includes 244 publications, and group two 51781 publications.
  • Here are the top 10.
  • Alemayehu G et al: Risk assessments of lumpy skin diseases in Borena bull market chain and its implication for livelihoods and international trade.
  • MacKay C et al: From pathways to people: applying the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) for skin sensitization to risk assessment.
  • Harnoss JC et al: Practice of skin protection and skin care among German surgeons and influence on the efficacy of surgical hand disinfection and surgical glove perforation.
  • Cooper IF et al: 'Steroids' associated with 'Cancer Screenings Skin': Top Publications.
  • Jolivot R et al: Skin parameter map retrieval from a dedicated multispectral imaging system applied to dermatology/cosmetology.
  • Csoma ZR et al: [Neonatal skin care in tertiary Neonatal Intensive Care Units in Hungary].
  • Chen WY et al: Risk assessment of excess drug and sunscreen absorption via skin with ablative fractional laser resurfacing : optimization of the applied dose for postoperative care.
  • Mackay C et al: From pathways to people: applying the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) for skin sensitization to risk assessment.
  • Seok HY et al: Microneedle applications for DNA vaccine delivery to the skin.
  • Melgaard L et al: Retrodialysis: a review of experimental and clinical applications of reverse microdialysis in the skin.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2014 Siadaty and Cooper; licensee BioMedLib LLC.
  • (UID = 706111049.001).
  • [ISSN] 2331-5717
  • [Journal-full-title] BioMedLib Review
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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19. |||||||... 71%  Cooper IF, Siadaty MS: 'Diagnostic Procedures' associated with 'Skin Specimen Source Code': Top Publications. BioMedLib Review; DiagnosticProcedure;SkinSpecimenSource:706102038. ISSN: 2331-5717. 2014/7/22
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  • [Title] 'Diagnostic Procedures' associated with 'Skin Specimen Source Code': Top Publications.
  • [Transliterated title]
  • Background: There are articles published each month which present 'Diagnostic Procedure' for 'skin specimen source code'.
  • Finding such articles is important for researchers, clinicians, and patients.
  • However these articles are spread across thousands of journals, and there are many types of 'Diagnostic Procedure'.
  • This makes searching and locating the relevant publications a challenge.
  • We have used BioMedLib's semantic search technology to address the issue, and gathered all the pertinent publications in this review article.
  • Methods: We categorized the publications we found into two groups.
  • We used the strength of textual-association to separate the groups.
  • In group one there are publications with the strongest evidence of association. We focused finding the most relevant publications pertinent to our goal, rather than combining them into a conclusion section. Such textual synthesis will be the focus of our next project.
  • Results: Group one includes 540 publications, and group two 40263 publications.
  • Here are the top 10.
  • Cooper IF et al: 'Steroids' associated with 'Schick Skin Test Diphtheria': Top Publications.
  • Puttini S et al: Gene expression changes in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy skin biopsies.
  • Tomasini C et al: The role of skin biopsy in diagnosis of panniculitides.
  • Doppler K et al: Disruption of nodal architecture in skin biopsies of patients with demyelinating neuropathies.
  • Lengyel Z et al: Circadian clocks and tumor biology: what is to learn from human skin biopsies?.
  • Dauch JR et al: Three-dimensional imaging of nociceptive intraepidermal nerve fibers in human skin biopsies.
  • Rovida C et al: Advanced tests for skin and respiratory sensitization assessment.
  • Akyalcin S et al: Measurement of skin dose from cone-beam computed tomography imaging.
  • Babalola O et al: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) of collagen in normal skin and skin fibrosis.
  • Loescher LJ et al: Advances in skin cancer early detection and diagnosis.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2014 Siadaty and Cooper; licensee BioMedLib LLC.
  • (UID = 706102038.001).
  • [ISSN] 2331-5717
  • [Journal-full-title] BioMedLib Review
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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20. |||||||... 71%  Cooper IF, Siadaty MS: 'Age Groups' associated with 'Skin Specimen Source Code': Top Publications. BioMedLib Review; AgeGroup;SkinSpecimenSource:706091289. ISSN: 2331-5717. 2014/9/22
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  • [Title] 'Age Groups' associated with 'Skin Specimen Source Code': Top Publications.
  • [Transliterated title]
  • Background: There are articles published each month which present 'Age Group' for 'skin specimen source code'.
  • Finding such articles is important for researchers, clinicians, and patients.
  • However these articles are spread across thousands of journals, and there are many types of 'Age Group'.
  • This makes searching and locating the relevant publications a challenge.
  • We have used BioMedLib's semantic search technology to address the issue, and gathered all the pertinent publications in this review article.
  • Methods: We categorized the publications we found into two groups.
  • We used the strength of textual-association to separate the groups.
  • In group one there are publications with the strongest evidence of association. We focused finding the most relevant publications pertinent to our goal, rather than combining them into a conclusion section. Such textual synthesis will be the focus of our next project.
  • Results: Group one includes 140 publications, and group two 10995 publications.
  • Here are the top 10.
  • Coret CD et al: Tolerance of natural baby skin-care products on healthy, full-term infants and toddlers.
  • Heckman CJ et al: Process and outcomes of a skin protection intervention for young adults.
  • Batista T et al: Assessment of sun protection and skin cancer prevention among preschool children.
  • Sztajnbok F et al: Tuberculin skin test and ELISPOT/T. SPOT.TB in children and adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.
  • Iarkowski LE et al: Tolerance of skin care regimen in healthy, full-term neonates.
  • Majidipour N et al: Chlorhexidine or povidone-iodine: Which solution is more effective on skin colonization in neonates?.
  • Heimann K et al: Thermoregulation of Premature Infants during and after Skin-to-Skin Care.
  • Mohamed Z et al: Malaysian nurses' skin care practices of preterm infants: experience vs. knowledge.
  • Lyngstad LT et al: Does skin-to-skin contact reduce stress during diaper change in preterm infants?.
  • Flacking R et al: Influence of NICU co-care facilities and skin-to-skin contact on maternal stress in mothers of preterm infants.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2014 Siadaty and Cooper; licensee BioMedLib LLC.
  • (UID = 706091289.001).
  • [ISSN] 2331-5717
  • [Journal-full-title] BioMedLib Review
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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21. |||||||... 71%  Cooper IF, Siadaty MS: 'Professional or Occupational Groups' associated with 'Skin Specimen Source Code': Top Publications. BioMedLib Review; ProfessionalOrOccupational;SkinSpecimenSource:706129534. ISSN: 2331-5717. 2014/11/23
PDF icon [Fulltext service] Download fulltext PDF of this article.

  • [Title] 'Professional or Occupational Groups' associated with 'Skin Specimen Source Code': Top Publications.
  • [Transliterated title]
  • Background: There are articles published each month which present 'Professional or Occupational Group' for 'skin specimen source code'.
  • Finding such articles is important for researchers, clinicians, and patients.
  • However these articles are spread across thousands of journals, and there are many types of 'Professional or Occupational Group'.
  • This makes searching and locating the relevant publications a challenge.
  • We have used BioMedLib's semantic search technology to address the issue, and gathered all the pertinent publications in this review article.
  • Methods: We categorized the publications we found into two groups.
  • We used the strength of textual-association to separate the groups.
  • In group one there are publications with the strongest evidence of association. We focused finding the most relevant publications pertinent to our goal, rather than combining them into a conclusion section. Such textual synthesis will be the focus of our next project.
  • Results: Group one includes 145 publications, and group two 37412 publications.
  • Here are the top 10.
  • Al-Naggar RA: Practice of skin cancer prevention among road traffic police officers in Malaysia.
  • van Rijsingen MC et al: Referrals by general practitioners for suspicious skin lesions: the urgency of training.
  • Badertscher N et al: Diagnostic competence of Swiss general practitioners in skin cancer.
  • Kymre IG: NICU nurses' ambivalent attitudes in skin-to-skin care practice.
  • Krčma M et al: Influence of physiological and supraphysiological hyperinsulinemia on skin microcirculation in healthy volunteers.
  • Kim SY et al: Tuberculin skin test and boosted reactions among newly employed healthcare workers: an observational study.
  • Levy E et al: [Pseudolymphoma of the skin: ambiguous terminology: a survey among dermatologists and pathologists].
  • van Rijsingen MC et al: The current and future role of general practitioners in skin cancer care: an assessment of 268 general practitioners.
  • Tucker R et al: An exploratory study demonstrating the diagnostic ability of healthcare professionals in primary care using online case studies for common skin conditions.
  • Chen G et al: Deformable liposomes by reverse-phase evaporation method for an enhanced skin delivery of (+)-catechin.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2014 Siadaty and Cooper; licensee BioMedLib LLC.
  • (UID = 706129534.001).
  • [ISSN] 2331-5717
  • [Journal-full-title] BioMedLib Review
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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22. |||||||... 71%  Cooper IF, Siadaty MS: 'Physical Objects' associated with 'Skin Specimen Source Code': Top Publications. BioMedLib Review; PhysicalObject;SkinSpecimenSource:705985063. ISSN: 2331-5717. 2014/3/18
PDF icon [Fulltext service] Download fulltext PDF of this article.

  • [Title] 'Physical Objects' associated with 'Skin Specimen Source Code': Top Publications.
  • [Transliterated title]
  • Background: There are articles published each month which present 'Physical Object' for 'skin specimen source code'.
  • Finding such articles is important for researchers, clinicians, and patients.
  • However these articles are spread across thousands of journals, and there are many types of 'Physical Object'.
  • This makes searching and locating the relevant publications a challenge.
  • We have used BioMedLib's semantic search technology to address the issue, and gathered all the pertinent publications in this review article.
  • Methods: We categorized the publications we found into two groups.
  • We used the strength of textual-association to separate the groups.
  • In group one there are publications with the strongest evidence of association. We focused finding the most relevant publications pertinent to our goal, rather than combining them into a conclusion section. Such textual synthesis will be the focus of our next project.
  • Results: Group one includes 20 publications, and group two 16214 publications.
  • Here are the top 10.
  • Guéniche A et al: Bifidobacterium longum lysate, a new ingredient for reactive skin.
  • Kalyanaraman B et al: Wound healing on athymic mice with engineered skin substitutes fabricated with keratinocytes harvested from an automated bioreactor.
  • Armel KC et al: Projecting sensations to external objects: evidence from skin conductance response.
  • Ponti G et al: Proteomic analysis of PTCH1+/- fibroblast lysate and conditioned culture media isolated from the skin of healthy subjects and nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome patients.
  • Ladd MR et al: Bioreactor maintained living skin matrix.
  • Kalyanaraman B et al: Assessment of an automated bioreactor to propagate and harvest keratinocytes for fabrication of engineered skin substitutes.
  • Rossi S et al: "Sponge-like" dressings based on biopolymers for the delivery of platelet lysate to skin chronic wounds.
  • Christensen R et al: Skin genetically engineered as a bioreactor or a 'metabolic sink'.
  • Schmid-Saugeon P: Symmetry axis computation for almost-symmetrical and asymmetrical objects: application to pigmented skin lesions.
  • Cao T et al: Regulated cutaneous gene delivery: the skin as a bioreactor.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2014 Siadaty and Cooper; licensee BioMedLib LLC.
  • (UID = 705985063.001).
  • [ISSN] 2331-5717
  • [Journal-full-title] BioMedLib Review
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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23. |||||||... 71%  Cooper IF, Siadaty MS: 'Cell or Molecular Dysfunctions' associated with 'Skin Specimen Source Code': Top Publications. BioMedLib Review; CellOrMolecular;SkinSpecimenSource:706099075. ISSN: 2331-5717. 2014/8/22
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  • [Title] 'Cell or Molecular Dysfunctions' associated with 'Skin Specimen Source Code': Top Publications.
  • [Transliterated title]
  • Background: There are articles published each month which present 'Cell or Molecular Dysfunction' for 'skin specimen source code'.
  • Finding such articles is important for researchers, clinicians, and patients.
  • However these articles are spread across thousands of journals, and there are many types of 'Cell or Molecular Dysfunction'.
  • This makes searching and locating the relevant publications a challenge.
  • We have used BioMedLib's semantic search technology to address the issue, and gathered all the pertinent publications in this review article.
  • Methods: We categorized the publications we found into two groups.
  • We used the strength of textual-association to separate the groups.
  • In group one there are publications with the strongest evidence of association. We focused finding the most relevant publications pertinent to our goal, rather than combining them into a conclusion section. Such textual synthesis will be the focus of our next project.
  • Results: Group one includes 53 publications, and group two 17183 publications.
  • Here are the top 10.
  • Lyle S et al: Dicer Cooperates with p53 to Suppress DNA Damage and Skin Carcinogenesis in Mice.
  • Acheva A et al: Mechanisms of DNA damage response to targeted irradiation in organotypic 3D skin cultures.
  • Surjana D et al: Nicotinamide enhances repair of ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage in human keratinocytes and ex vivo skin.
  • Alarifi S et al: Induction of oxidative stress, DNA damage, and apoptosis in a malignant human skin melanoma cell line after exposure to zinc oxide nanoparticles.
  • Hallberg O et al: Increasing melanoma-too many skin cell damages or too few repairs?.
  • Cooper IF et al: 'Steroids' associated with 'Skin Fragility': Top Publications.
  • Kahan V et al: Is lack of sleep capable of inducing DNA damage in aged skin?.
  • Bowman A et al: The simultaneous detection of mitochondrial DNA damage from sun-exposed skin of three whale species and its association with UV-induced microscopic lesions and apoptosis.
  • Jelveh S et al: Investigations of antioxidant-mediated protection and mitigation of radiation-induced DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in murine skin.
  • Del Bino S et al: Assessment of ultraviolet-radiation-induced DNA damage within melanocytes in skin of different constitutive pigmentation.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2014 Siadaty and Cooper; licensee BioMedLib LLC.
  • (UID = 706099075.001).
  • [ISSN] 2331-5717
  • [Journal-full-title] BioMedLib Review
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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24. |||||||... 71%  Cooper IF, Siadaty MS: 'Fully Formed Anatomical Structures' associated with 'Skin Specimen Source Code': Top Publications. BioMedLib Review; FullyFormedAnatomical;SkinSpecimenSource:706112058. ISSN: 2331-5717. 2014/2/23
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  • [Title] 'Fully Formed Anatomical Structures' associated with 'Skin Specimen Source Code': Top Publications.
  • [Transliterated title]
  • Background: There are articles published each month which present 'Fully Formed Anatomical Structure' for 'skin specimen source code'.
  • Finding such articles is important for researchers, clinicians, and patients.
  • However these articles are spread across thousands of journals, and there are many types of 'Fully Formed Anatomical Structure'.
  • This makes searching and locating the relevant publications a challenge.
  • We have used BioMedLib's semantic search technology to address the issue, and gathered all the pertinent publications in this review article.
  • Methods: We categorized the publications we found into two groups.
  • We used the strength of textual-association to separate the groups.
  • In group one there are publications with the strongest evidence of association. We focused finding the most relevant publications pertinent to our goal, rather than combining them into a conclusion section. Such textual synthesis will be the focus of our next project.
  • Results: Group one includes 34 publications, and group two 1780 publications.
  • Here are the top 10.
  • van Ruth S et al: Total body topical 5-fluorouracil for extensive non-melanoma skin cancer.
  • Pinheiro T et al: Distribution and quantitation of skin iron in primary haemochromatosis: correlation with total body iron stores in patients undergoing phlebotomy.
  • Schwartz JL et al: Basal cell skin cancer after total-body irradiation and hematopoietic cell transplantation.
  • Aldridge RB et al: The importance of a full clinical examination: assessment of index lesions referred to a skin cancer clinic without a total body skin examination would miss one in three melanomas.
  • Bochno R et al: Age-related changes in the distribution of lean, fat with skin and bones in duck carcases.
  • Fisher A et al: The production and microbiological status of skin-on sheep carcasses.
  • Mersha G et al: Occurrence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in faeces, skin and carcasses from sheep and goats in Ethiopia.
  • Pepe T et al: Detection of Campylobacter from poultry carcass skin samples at slaughter in Southern Italy.
  • McCrea BA et al: Detection of Campylobacter jejuni from the skin of broiler chickens, ducks, squab, quail, and guinea fowl carcasses.
  • Buhr RJ et al: Bacterial recovery from breast skin of genetically feathered and featherless broiler carcasses immediately following scalding and picking.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2014 Siadaty and Cooper; licensee BioMedLib LLC.
  • (UID = 706112058.001).
  • [ISSN] 2331-5717
  • [Journal-full-title] BioMedLib Review
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
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25. |......... 11%  Becker LC, Bergfeld WF, Belsito DV, Hill RA, Klaassen CD, Liebler DC, Marks JG Jr, Shank RC, Slaga TJ, Snyder PW, Andersen FA: Safety assessment of borosilicate glasses as used in cosmetics. Int J Toxicol; 2013 Sep-Oct;32(5 Suppl):65S-72S
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Safety assessment of borosilicate glasses as used in cosmetics.
  • The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of calcium sodium borosilicate, calcium aluminum borosilicate, calcium titanium borosilicate, silver borosilicate, and zinc borosilicate as used in cosmetics.
  • Available animal and human data were considered along with data from a previous safety assessment of magnesium silicates.
  • The similar structure, properties, functions, and uses of these ingredients enabled grouping them and using the available toxicological data to assess the safety of the entire group.
  • Data submitted on calcium borosilicate, which is not a cosmetic ingredient, are also included as additional support for the safety of borosilicate glass ingredients.
  • The Panel concluded that borosilicate glasses are safe as cosmetic ingredients in the practices of use and concentration as given in this safety assessment.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Consumer Product Safety. Cosmetics. Humans. Mutagenicity Tests. Skin / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 24174476.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-874X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Boron Compounds; 0 / Cosmetics; 0 / Silicates
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; borosilicates / cosmetics / glasses / safety
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26. |......... 10%  Roggeband R, Helmlinger G, Smith I, Wilhelm KP, Ryan CA, Gerberick GF: A skin sensitization safety assessment of a new bleach activator technology in detergent applications. Contact Dermatitis; 2002 Apr;46(4):211-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A skin sensitization safety assessment of a new bleach activator technology in detergent applications.
  • Animal testing demonstrated that NACAOBS, as a raw material, is a weak skin sensitizer.
  • Results confirmed the skin sensitization safety profile of laundry detergents containing NACAOBS, namely the absence of any reaction suggestive of contact sensitization (even under exaggerated dermal exposure conditions in a detergent matrix), and a skin compatibility profile comparable to that of current detergents.
  • Further confirmation of the skin safety profile was obtained from a successful 12-month market test of a granular detergent containing 3.6% of the new substance, during which not a single adverse skin reaction was reported.
  • It can be concluded that the likelihood of NACAOBS to induce skin sensitization or even elicit allergic reactions in consumer detergent use scenarios is negligible.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Guinea Pigs. Humans. Mice. Skin Tests

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  • (PMID = 12081699.001).
  • [ISSN] 0105-1873
  • [Journal-full-title] Contact dermatitis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Contact Derm.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzenesulfonates; 0 / Detergents; 0 / nonanoyl amido caproylacid oxybenzenesulfonate; DY38VHM5OD / Sodium Hypochlorite
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27. |......... 10%  Johnson W Jr, Bergfeld WF, Belsito DV, Hill RA, Klaassen CD, Liebler D, Marks JG Jr, Shank RC, Slaga TJ, Snyder PW, Andersen FA: Safety assessment of alkyl glyceryl ethers as used in cosmetics. Int J Toxicol; 2013 Sep-Oct;32(5 Suppl):5S-21S
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Safety assessment of alkyl glyceryl ethers as used in cosmetics.
  • Alkyl glyceryl ethers function mostly as skin-conditioning agents in cosmetic products applied to the skin and hair.
  • The Cosmetic Ingredient Review expert panel reviewed the available animal toxicity and clinical data, including the low dermal absorption, and concluded that the alkyl glyceryl ethers are safe in the present practices of use and concentration described in this safety assessment.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Consumer Product Safety. Cosmetics. Humans

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  • (PMID = 24174475.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-874X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cosmetics; 0 / Glyceryl Ethers
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; alkyl glyceryl ethers
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28. |......... 10%  Becker LC, Bergfeld WF, Belsito DV, Klaassen CD, Marks JG Jr, Shank RC, Slaga TJ, Snyder PW, Alan Andersen F: Final report of the safety assessment of allantoin and its related complexes. Int J Toxicol; 2010 May;29(3 Suppl):84S-97S
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Final report of the safety assessment of allantoin and its related complexes.
  • All of the ingredients in this review act as skin-conditioning agents.
  • The safety test data in this safety assessment and in previous safety assessments were considered sufficient to support the safety of allantoin and the allantoin complexes in product categories and at concentrations reviewed in this safety assessment.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Animals, Laboratory. Consumer Product Safety. Humans. Risk Assessment. Toxicity Tests

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Cosmetics.
  • HSDB. structure - ALLANTOIN.
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  • (PMID = 20448269.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-874X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cosmetics; 0 / Dermatologic Agents; 344S277G0Z / Allantoin
  • [Number-of-references] 99
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29. |......... 10%  Burnett CL, Heldreth B, Bergfeld WF, Belsito DV, Hill RA, Klaassen CD, Liebler DC, Marks JG Jr, Shank RC, Slaga TJ, Snyder PW, Andersen FA: Safety assessment of α-amino acids as used in cosmetics. Int J Toxicol; 2013 Nov-Dec;32(6 Suppl):41S-64S
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Safety assessment of α-amino acids as used in cosmetics.
  • The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of α-amino acids, which function primarily as hair- and skin-conditioning agents in cosmetic products.
  • The safety of α-amino acids as direct food additives has been well established based on extensive research through acute and chronic dietary exposures.
  • The Panel concluded that α-amino acids were safe as cosmetic ingredients in the practices of use and concentration of this safety assessment.
  • [MeSH-major] Amino Acids / adverse effects. Cosmetics / adverse effects. Safety Management

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  • (PMID = 24335967.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-874X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Amino Acids; 0 / Cosmetics
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; cosmetics / safety assessment / α-amino acids
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30. |......... 10%  Becker LC, Bergfeld WF, Belsito DV, Hill RA, Klaassen CD, Liebler D, Marks JG Jr, Shank RC, Slaga TJ, Snyder PW, Andersen FA: Safety assessment of silylates and surface-modified siloxysilicates. Int J Toxicol; 2013 May-Jun;32(3 Suppl):5S-24S
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Safety assessment of silylates and surface-modified siloxysilicates.
  • The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel assessed the safety of silica silylate, silica dimethyl silylate, trimethylsiloxysilicate, and trifluoropropyldimethyl/trimethylsiloxysilicate as used in cosmetics.
  • These silylates and surface-modified siloxysilicates function in cosmetics as antifoaming agents, anticaking agents, bulking agents, binders, skin-conditioning agents--emollient, skin-conditioning agents-occlusive, slip modifiers, suspension agents--nonsurfactant, and viscosity increasing agents--nonaqueous.
  • The Expert Panel reviewed the available animal and clinical data as well as information from a previous CIR safety assessment of amorphous silica.
  • [MeSH-major] Consumer Product Safety. Cosmetics / toxicity. Hydrocarbons, Fluorinated / toxicity. Organosilicon Compounds / toxicity. Silicon Dioxide / toxicity

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Cosmetics.
  • HSDB. structure - SILICON DIOXIDE.
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  • (PMID = 23696579.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-874X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antifoam A; 0 / Cosmetics; 0 / Hydrocarbons, Fluorinated; 0 / Organosilicon Compounds; 0 / Silicone Oils; 0 / Trimethylsilyl Compounds; 7631-86-9 / Silicon Dioxide
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; silylates
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31. |......... 10%  Boyer IJ, Heldreth B, Bergfeld WF, Belsito DV, Hill RA, Klaassen CD, Liebler DC, Marks JG Jr, Shank RC, Slaga TJ, Snyder PW, Andersen FA: Amended safety assessment of formaldehyde and methylene glycol as used in cosmetics. Int J Toxicol; 2013 Nov-Dec;32(6 Suppl):5S-32S
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Amended safety assessment of formaldehyde and methylene glycol as used in cosmetics.
  • Formaldehyde and methylene glycol may be used safely in cosmetics if established limits are not exceeded and are safe for use in nail hardeners in the present practices of use and concentration, which include instructions to avoid skin contact.
  • This rapid, reversible formaldehyde/methylene glycol equilibrium is distinguished from the slow, irreversible release of formaldehyde resulting from the so-called formaldehyde releaser preservatives, which are not addressed in this safety assessment (formaldehyde releasers may continue to be safely used in cosmetics at the levels established in their individual Cosmetic Ingredient Review safety assessments).
  • [MeSH-major] Cosmetics. Formaldehyde / toxicity. Methanol / analogs & derivatives. Safety Management

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Cosmetics.
  • HSDB. structure - SODIUM METHOXIDE.
  • HSDB. structure - FORMALDEHYDE.
  • HSDB. structure - METHANOL.
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  • (PMID = 24335968.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-874X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cosmetics; 0 / methylene glycol; 1HG84L3525 / Formaldehyde; Y4S76JWI15 / Methanol
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; formaldehyde / methylene glycol
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32. |......... 10%  Fiume Z: Final report on the safety assessment of Malic Acid and Sodium Malate. Int J Toxicol; 2001;20 Suppl 1:47-55
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Final report on the safety assessment of Malic Acid and Sodium Malate.
  • Malic Acid functions in cosmetic formulations as a pH adjuster, and Sodium Malate functions as a skin conditioning agent-humectant.
  • Malic Acid was a moderate to strong skin irritatant in animal tests, and was a strong ocular irritant.
  • The data, however, were insufficient to determine the safety of these ingredients when used in cosmetics as other than pH adjusters and specifically, the data are insufficient to determine the safety of Sodium Malate when used as a skin conditioning agent-humectant.
  • The types of data required for the Expert Panel to determine the safety of Sodium Malate as a skin-conditioning agent are: concentration of use data; dermal irritation and sensitization data; and ocular irritation data, if available.
  • The data needed to assess the safety of Malic Acid or Sodium Malate for some function other than as a skin-conditioning agent cannot be specified without knowing the intended function.
  • Were these ingredients to be used as exfoliants, for example, data similar to that included in the Cosmetic Ingredient Review safety assessment of Glycolic Acid would be needed.
  • Until these data are available, it is concluded that the available data are insufficient to support the safety of these ingredients in cosmetic formulations for functions other than use as a pH adjuster.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Attention. Consumer Product Safety. Hair Preparations / adverse effects. Hair Preparations / toxicity. Humans. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Mud Therapy / adverse effects. Skin / metabolism. Skin / pathology. Skin Irritancy Tests

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Cosmetics.
  • HSDB. structure - MALIC ACID.
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  • (PMID = 11358110.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-5818
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cosmetics; 0 / Hair Preparations; 0 / Malates; 6915-15-7 / malic acid
  • [Number-of-references] 53
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33. |......... 10%  Nithya V, Muthukumar SP, Halami PM: Safety assessment of Bacillus licheniformis Me1 isolated from milk for probiotic application. Int J Toxicol; 2012 Jun;31(3):228-37
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Safety assessment of Bacillus licheniformis Me1 isolated from milk for probiotic application.
  • In this study, an in vivo toxicological safety assessment of Bacillus licheniformis Me1, a native isolate from milk, was performed.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Eye / drug effects. Female. Male. Mice. Micronucleus Tests. Milk / microbiology. No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level. Rabbits. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Skin / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 22674930.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-874X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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34. |......... 10%  Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel: Final report on the safety assessment of Maleic Acid. Int J Toxicol; 2007;26 Suppl 2:125-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Final report on the safety assessment of Maleic Acid.
  • Only five of the remaining subjects accommodated to the treatment, the rest had varying degrees of inflammation or hyperirritable skin.
  • The safety of Maleic Acid as a pH adjustor should not be based on the concentration of use, but on the amount of free Maleic Acid that remains after neutralizing the formulation.
  • The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel concluded that Maleic Acid is safe for use in cosmetic formulations as a pH adjustor in the practices of use as described in this safety assessment.
  • [MeSH-major] Consumer Product Safety. Enzyme Inhibitors / toxicity. Maleates / toxicity. Perfume / toxicity
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Consensus. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Erythema / chemically induced. Erythema / pathology. Humans. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Irritants / toxicity. Risk Assessment. Skin / drug effects. Skin / pathology. Toxicity Tests

  • HSDB. structure - MALEIC ACID.
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  • (PMID = 17613135.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-874X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Irritants; 0 / Maleates; 0 / Perfume; 91XW058U2C / maleic acid
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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35. |......... 10%  Burnett CL, Bergfeld WF, Belsito DV, Klaassen CD, Marks JG Jr, Shank RC, Slaga TJ, Snyder PW, Alan Andersen F: Final report on the safety assessment of amino nitrophenols as used in hair dyes. Int J Toxicol; 2009 Nov-Dec;28(6 Suppl 2):217S-51S
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Final report on the safety assessment of amino nitrophenols as used in hair dyes.
  • The available toxicity studies for these amino nitrophenol hair dyes did not suggest safety concerns except for the potential carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of 4-amino-2-nitrophenol.
  • 2-Amino-3-nitrophenol, 2-amino-4-nitrophenol, 2-amino-4-nitrophenol sulfate, 2-amino-5-nitrophenol, 4-amino-3-nitrophenol, 3-nitro-p-hydroxyethylaminophenol, and 4-hydroxypropylamino-3-nitrophenol are safe as hair dye ingredients in the practices of use and concentration as described in this safety assessment, but the data are insufficient to make a safety determination for 4-amino-2-nitrophenol.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Bacteria / drug effects. Bacteria / genetics. Carcinogenicity Tests. Carcinogens / toxicity. Cosmetics. Drug Contamination. Eye Diseases / chemically induced. Eye Diseases / pathology. Female. Humans. Irritants / toxicity. Mutagenicity Tests. Mutagens / toxicity. Neoplasms / chemically induced. Neoplasms / epidemiology. Pregnancy. Rabbits. Reproduction / drug effects. Safety. Skin Diseases / chemically induced. Skin Diseases / pathology. Tissue Distribution

  • HSDB. structure - NITROPHENOLS.
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  • (PMID = 20086194.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-874X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / Cosmetics; 0 / Hair Dyes; 0 / Irritants; 0 / Mutagens; 0 / Nitrophenols
  • [Number-of-references] 127
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36. |......... 10%  Nohynek GJ, Antignac E, Re T, Toutain H: Safety assessment of personal care products/cosmetics and their ingredients. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol; 2010 Mar 1;243(2):239-59
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Safety assessment of personal care products/cosmetics and their ingredients.
  • We attempt to review the safety assessment of personal care products (PCP) and ingredients that are representative and pose complex safety issues.
  • PCP are generally applied to human skin and mainly produce local exposure, although skin penetration or use in the oral cavity, on the face, lips, eyes and mucosa may also produce human systemic exposure.
  • In the EU, US and Japan, the safety of PCP is regulated under cosmetic and/or drug regulations.
  • Recent reports suggest that arylamines contained in oxidative hair dyes are N-acetylated in human or mammalian skin resulting in systemic exposure to traces of detoxified, i.e. non-genotoxic, metabolites, whereas human hepatocytes were unable to transform hair dye arylamines to potentially carcinogenic metabolites.
  • Ultraviolet filters have important benefits by protecting the consumer against adverse effects of UV radiation; these substances undergo a stringent safety evaluation under current international regulations prior to their marketing.
  • Concerns were also raised about the safety of solid nanoparticles in PCP, mainly TiO(2) and ZnO in sunscreens.
  • However, current evidence suggests that these particles are non-toxic, do not penetrate into or through normal or compromised human skin and, therefore, pose no risk to human health.
  • The increasing use of natural plant ingredients in personal care products raised new safety issues that require novel approaches to their safety evaluation similar to those of plant-derived food ingredients.
  • For example, the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) is a promising tool to assess the safety of substances present at trace levels as well as minor ingredients of plant-derived substances.
  • The potential human systemic exposure to PCP ingredients is increasingly estimated on the basis of in vitro skin penetration data.
  • However, new evidence suggests that the in vitro test may overestimate human systemic exposure to PCP ingredients due to the absence of metabolism in cadaver skin or misclassification of skin residues that, in vivo, remain in the stratum corneum or hair follicle openings, i.e. outside the living skin.
  • Overall, today's safety assessment of PCP and their ingredients is not only based on science, but also on their respective regulatory status as well as other issues, such as the ethics of animal testing.
  • In the interest of all stakeholders, consumers, regulatory bodies and producers, there is an urgent need for an international harmonization on the status and safety requirements of these products and their ingredients.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Consumer Product Safety. Hair Dyes / adverse effects. Hair Dyes / toxicity. Humans. Legislation, Drug. Plants / chemistry. Risk Assessment / methods. Safety. Sunscreening Agents / adverse effects. Sunscreening Agents / toxicity

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  • (PMID = 20005888.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-0333
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicology and applied pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cosmetics; 0 / Hair Dyes; 0 / Sunscreening Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 195
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37. |......... 10%  Battershill JM: Review of the safety assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with particular reference to reproductive toxicity. Hum Exp Toxicol; 1994 Sep;13(9):581-97
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  • [Title] Review of the safety assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with particular reference to reproductive toxicity.
  • It is not possible to give an accurate estimate of a NOAEL or LOAEL from the reproduction studies using commercial PCB mixtures which could be readily applied to the safety assessment of PCBs present as contaminants in food.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenal Glands / drug effects. Animals. Behavior, Animal / drug effects. Estrogens / metabolism. Female. Food Contamination. Humans. Immune System / drug effects. Liver / drug effects. Male. Skin / drug effects. Structure-Activity Relationship. Thyroid Gland / drug effects

  • HSDB. structure - POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS.
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  • (PMID = 7986570.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-3271
  • [Journal-full-title] Human & experimental toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum Exp Toxicol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogens; DFC2HB4I0K / Polychlorinated Biphenyls
  • [Number-of-references] 145
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38. |......... 10%  Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel: Final report on the safety assessment of Basic Blue 99. Int J Toxicol; 2007;26 Suppl 2:51-63
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Final report on the safety assessment of Basic Blue 99.
  • Hair dyes containing Basic Blue 99, as "coal tar" hair dye products, are exempt from the principal adulteration provision and from the color additive provision of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938 when the label bears a caution statement and "patch test" instructions for determining whether the product causes skin irritation.
  • The Panel recognizes that hair dye epidemiology studies do not address the safety of individual hair dyes.
  • Based on the available safety test data on Basic Blue 99, however, the Panel determined that this ingredient would not likely have carcinogenic potential as used in hair dyes.
  • The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel concluded that Basic Blue 99 is safe as a hair dye ingredient in the practice of use and concentration as described in this safety assessment.
  • [MeSH-major] Consumer Product Safety. Hair Dyes / toxicity. Naphthoquinones / toxicity. Quaternary Ammonium Compounds / toxicity
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Consensus. Humans. Risk Assessment. Toxicity Tests

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  • (PMID = 17613131.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-874X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hair Dyes; 0 / Naphthoquinones; 0 / Quaternary Ammonium Compounds; 68123-13-7 / Basic Blue 99
  • [Number-of-references] 66
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39. |......... 10%  Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel: Final report on the safety assessment of methoxyisopropanol and methoxyisopropyl acetate as used in cosmetics. Int J Toxicol; 2008;27 Suppl 2:25-39
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Final report on the safety assessment of methoxyisopropanol and methoxyisopropyl acetate as used in cosmetics.
  • Methoxyisopropanol and Methoxyisopropyl Acetate were found to be nonirritating to slightly irritating and non-sensitizing in rabbit and guinea pig skin.
  • The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommended an 8-h time-weighted average for occupational exposure of 100 ppm.
  • A margin of safety of 500 was determined, based on a calculated exposure from the normal use of nail polish remover products (100% absorption) and the NOAEL for reproductive toxicity.
  • The absorption of Methoxyisopropanol through the nail is likely to be low, suggesting this margin of safety is conservative.
  • The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel concluded that Methoxyisopropanol and Methoxyisopropyl Acetate are safe for use in nail care products in the practices of use and concentration as described in this safety assessment.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Molecular Structure. No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level. Safety

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  • HSDB. structure - 1-METHOXY-2-HYDROXYPROPANE.
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  • (PMID = 18830862.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-874X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cosmetics; 0 / Propylene Glycols; 0 / propylene glycol methyl ether acetate; 1320-67-8 / propylene glycol methyl ether
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40. |......... 9%  Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel: Amended final report of the safety assessment of cocamidopropylamine oxide. Int J Toxicol; 2008;27 Suppl 1:55-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Amended final report of the safety assessment of cocamidopropylamine oxide.
  • In an earlier safety assessment, the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel had determined that the available data were insufficient to support the safety of this ingredient in cosmetic products.
  • Application of 81.5% Cocamidopropylamine Oxide to rabbit skin caused moderate irritation under Draize classification scale, but 81.5% Cocamidopropylamine Oxide in rabbit eyes caused severe irritation.
  • A maximization study classified Cocamidopropylamine Oxide as a nonsensitizer to guinea pig skin.
  • However, the overall information available on types of products in which this ingredient is used and at what concentration indicate a pattern of use, which was considered by the Expert Panel in assessing safety.
  • Although dermal penetration may be slow, data on the extent of dermal penetration of Cocamidopropylamine Oxide are needed to support the safety of leave-on uses.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Consensus. Consumer Product Safety. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Humans. Risk Assessment. Toxicity Tests

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  • (PMID = 18569162.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-874X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hair Preparations; 0 / Oxides; 0 / Propylamines; 0 / Surface-Active Agents; 0 / cocamidopropylamine oxide
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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41. |......... 9%  Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel: Amended final report of the safety assessment of Drometrizole as used in cosmetics. Int J Toxicol; 2008;27 Suppl 1:63-75
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  • [Title] Amended final report of the safety assessment of Drometrizole as used in cosmetics.
  • In an earlier safety assessment, the available data were found insufficient to support the safety of this ingredient, but new data have been provided and assessed.
  • A nail polish containing 1.0% Drometrizole was nonirritating to rabbit skin and Drometrizole was negative for sensitization in two Magnusson-Kligman maximization tests in guinea pigs.
  • The available safety test data do not suggest any adverse effects associated with exposure to Drometrizole.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Consensus. Consumer Product Safety. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Humans. Risk Assessment. Toxicity Tests

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  • (PMID = 18569163.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-874X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic; 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Cosmetics; 0 / Triazoles; 5X93W9OFZL / drometrizole
  • [Number-of-references] 57
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42. |......... 9%  Final report on the safety assessment of Hexamidine and Hexamidine Diisethionate. Int J Toxicol; 2007;26 Suppl 3:79-88
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Final report on the safety assessment of Hexamidine and Hexamidine Diisethionate.
  • Hexamidine was poorly absorbed by human cadaver skin when in water-oil formulations or in a gel that simulated a cosmetic product formulation.
  • Hexamidine Diisethionate was poorly absorbed by the skin of live rats and was not stored in any tissue type.
  • Slight erythema was observed with 0.10% Hexamidine Diisethionate applied to the abraded skin of 1/11 albino rabbits.
  • A European safety assessment recommended a limit of 0.1% Hexamidine Diisethionate in leave-on and rinse-off cosmetic products.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Consumer Product Safety. Cosmetics / toxicity. Humans. Nonprescription Drugs / toxicity. Toxicity Tests

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  • (PMID = 18273451.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-5818
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Infective Agents; 0 / Benzamidines; 0 / Cosmetics; 0 / Nonprescription Drugs; 0 / Preservatives, Pharmaceutical; 3483C2H13H / hexamidine
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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43. |......... 9%  Becker LC, Bergfeld WF, Belsito DV, Hill RA, Klaassen CD, Liebler DC, Marks JG Jr, Shank RC, Slaga TJ, Snyder PW, Andersen FA: Amended safety assessment of hypericum perforatum-derived ingredients as used in cosmetics. Int J Toxicol; 2014 Sep;33(3 Suppl):5S-23S
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Amended safety assessment of hypericum perforatum-derived ingredients as used in cosmetics.
  • The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) has issued an amended safety assessment of 7 Hypericum perforatum-derived ingredients as used in cosmetics.
  • These ingredients function in cosmetics as skin-conditioning agents-miscellaneous and antimicrobial agents.
  • The Panel concluded that H perforatum-derived ingredients were safe as cosmetic ingredients in the practices of use and concentration as described in this safety assessment.

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  • [Copyright] © The Author(s) 2014.
  • (PMID = 25297909.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-874X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Hypericum perforatum
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44. |......... 9%  Johnson W Jr, Bergfeld WF, Belsito DV, Hill RA, Klaassen CD, Liebler DC, Marks JG Jr, Shank RC, Slaga TJ, Snyder PW, Andersen FA: Amended safety assessment of Sesamum indicum (sesame) seed oil, hydrogenated sesame seed oil, Sesamum indicum (sesame) oil unsaponifiables, and sodium sesameseedate. Int J Toxicol; 2011 May;30(3 Suppl):40S-53S
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Amended safety assessment of Sesamum indicum (sesame) seed oil, hydrogenated sesame seed oil, Sesamum indicum (sesame) oil unsaponifiables, and sodium sesameseedate.
  • These ingredients are neither skin irritants, sensitizers, teratogens, nor carcinogens at exposures that would result from cosmetic use.
  • The CIR Expert Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe in the present practices of use and concentration as described in this safety assessment.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Consumer Product Safety. Food Additives / adverse effects. Food Additives / chemistry. Humans. Hydrogenation. Molecular Structure. Toxicity Tests

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  • (PMID = 21772026.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-874X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cosmetics; 0 / Food Additives; 0 / Soaps; 8008-74-0 / Sesame Oil
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45. |......... 9%  Fiume MM, Heldreth B, Bergfeld WF, Belsito DV, Hill RA, Klaassen CD, Liebler D, Marks JG Jr, Shank RC, Slaga TJ, Snyder PW, Andersen FA: Final report of the Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel on the safety assessment of dicarboxylic acids, salts, and esters. Int J Toxicol; 2012 Jul-Aug;31(4 Suppl):5S-76S
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Final report of the Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel on the safety assessment of dicarboxylic acids, salts, and esters.
  • The CIR Expert Panel assessed the safety of dicarboxylic acids and their salts and esters as used in cosmetics.
  • Some of the esters function as skin conditioning or fragrance ingredients, plasticizers, solvents, or emollients.
  • The Expert Panel noted gaps in the available safety data for some of the dicarboxylic acid and their salts and esters in this safety assessment.
  • The available data on many of the ingredients are sufficient, however, and similar structural activity relationships, biologic functions, and cosmetic product usage suggest that the available data may be extrapolated to support the safety of the entire group.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Esters / chemistry. Humans. Risk Assessment. Salts / chemistry

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  • [ErratumIn] Int J Toxicol. 2012 Sep-Oct;31(5 Suppl):261S. Eldreth, Hbart [corrected to Heldreth, Bart]
  • (PMID = 22869895.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-874X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Technical Report
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cosmetics; 0 / Dicarboxylic Acids; 0 / Esters; 0 / Salts
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46. |......... 9%  Burnett CL, Bergfeld WF, Belsito DV, Klaassen CD, Marks JG Jr, Shank RC, Slaga TJ, Snyder PW, Andersen FA: Final report on the safety assessment of Cocos nucifera (coconut) oil and related ingredients. Int J Toxicol; 2011 May;30(3 Suppl):5S-16S
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Final report on the safety assessment of Cocos nucifera (coconut) oil and related ingredients.
  • It may function as a fragrance ingredient, hair conditioning agent, or skin-conditioning agent and is reported in 626 cosmetics at concentrations from 0.0001% to 70%.
  • The related ingredients covered in this assessment are fatty acids, and their hydrogenated forms, corresponding fatty alcohols, simple esters, and inorganic and sulfated salts of coconut oil.
  • Coconut oil and related ingredients are safe as cosmetic ingredients in the practices of use and concentration described in this safety assessment.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Consumer Product Safety. Humans. Toxicity Tests

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  • HSDB. structure - COCONUT OIL.
  • HSDB. structure - VEGETABLE OIL.
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  • (PMID = 21772024.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-874X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cosmetics; 0 / Plant Oils; 8001-31-8 / coconut oil
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47. |......... 9%  Andersen A: Final amended report on the safety assessment of oxyquinoline and oxyquinoline sulfate as used in cosmetics. Int J Toxicol; 2006;25 Suppl 1:1-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Final amended report on the safety assessment of oxyquinoline and oxyquinoline sulfate as used in cosmetics.
  • In an earlier Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) safety assessment, the available data were found insufficient to support safety.
  • For leave-on cosmetic products, however, the absence of impurities and ultraviolet (UV) absorption data resulted in a finding that the available data are insufficient to support safety.
  • The data needed in order to complete the safety assessment of Oxyquinoline and Oxyquinoline Sulfate in leave-on cosmetic products are (1) UV absorption data -- if significant absorption occurs, then photoirritation/photosensitization data will be needed; and (2) data on impurities.
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Animals. Drosophila. Eye / drug effects. Female. Genes, ras. Humans. Inhalation Exposure. Male. Mice. Microbial Sensitivity Tests. Mutagenicity Tests. Rats. Rats, Inbred F344. Skin / drug effects. Toxicity Tests

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  • (PMID = 16835127.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-5818
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cosmetics; 5UTX5635HP / Oxyquinoline
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48. |......... 9%  Becker LC, Bergfeld WF, Belsito DV, Klaassen CD, Marks JG Jr, Shank RC, Slaga TJ, Snyder PW, Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel, Andersen FA: Final report of the safety assessment of hyaluronic acid, potassium hyaluronate, and sodium hyaluronate. Int J Toxicol; 2009 Jul-Aug;28(4 Suppl):5-67
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Final report of the safety assessment of hyaluronic acid, potassium hyaluronate, and sodium hyaluronate.
  • Hyaluronic acid, sodium hyaluronate, and potassium hyaluronate function in cosmetics as skin conditioning agents at concentrations up to 2%.
  • Hyaluronic acid and its sodium and potassium salts are considered safe for use in cosmetics as described in the safety assessment.

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  • (PMID = 19636067.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-874X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cosmetics; 0 / Polymers; 9004-61-9 / Hyaluronic Acid
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49. |......... 8%  Ladics GS, Selgrade MK: Identifying food proteins with allergenic potential: evolution of approaches to safety assessment and research to provide additional tools. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol; 2009 Aug;54(3 Suppl):S2-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Identifying food proteins with allergenic potential: evolution of approaches to safety assessment and research to provide additional tools.
  • A safety assessment process exists for genetically engineered crops that includes the evaluation of the expressed protein for allergenic potential.
  • Assessment of the allergenic potential of foods from genetically engineered crop plants. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr.
  • Appendix III, Guideline for the conduct of food safety assessment of foods derived from recombinant-DNA plants, and Appendix IV, Annex on the assessment of possible allergenicity. pp.
  • 47-60], noting that no single factor is recognized as an identifier for protein allergenicity, suggested a weight of evidence approach be conducted that takes into account a variety of factors and approaches for an overall assessment of allergenic potential.
  • These various recommendations are based on what is known about allergens, including the history of exposure and safety of the gene(s) source; amino acid sequence identity to human allergens; stability to pepsin digestion in vitro; protein abundance in the crop and processing effects; and when appropriate, specific IgE binding studies or skin-prick testing.
  • [MeSH-major] Dietary Proteins / immunology. Food Hypersensitivity / diagnosis. Plant Proteins / immunology. Plants, Genetically Modified / immunology. Risk Assessment / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Safety

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  • (PMID = 19028539.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-0295
  • [Journal-full-title] Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dietary Proteins; 0 / Plant Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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50. |......... 8%  Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel: Final report on the safety assessment of HC Yellow No. 5. Int J Toxicol; 2007;26 Suppl 2:113-24
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Final report on the safety assessment of HC Yellow No. 5.
  • Hair dyes containing HC Yellow No. 5, as "coal tar" hair dye products, are exempt from the principal adulteration provision and from the color additive provision of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938 when the label bears a caution statement and "patch test" instructions for determining whether the product causes skin irritation.
  • Absorption of HC Yellow No. 5 is minimal through skin (< 0.2%).
  • Based on the available safety test data on HC Yellow No. 5, the Panel determined that this ingredient likely would not have carcinogenic potential as used in hair dyes.
  • The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel concluded that HC Yellow No. 5 is safe as a hair dye ingredient in the practices of use and concentration as described in this safety assessment.
  • [MeSH-major] Consumer Product Safety. Hair Dyes / toxicity. Phenylenediamines / toxicity
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Consensus. Humans. Irritants / pharmacokinetics. Irritants / toxicity. Risk Assessment. Toxicity Tests

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  • (PMID = 17613134.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-874X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hair Dyes; 0 / Irritants; 0 / Phenylenediamines; I844A312T7 / HC yellow No. 5
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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51. |......... 8%  Lanigan RS, Yamarik TA, Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert panel: Final report on the safety assessment of sorbitan caprylate, sorbitan cocoate, sorbitan diisostearate, sorbitan dioleate, sorbitan distearate, sorbitan isostearate, sorbitan olivate, sorbitan sesquiisostearate, sorbitan sesquistearate, and sorbitan triisostearate. Int J Toxicol; 2002;21 Suppl 1:93-112
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Final report on the safety assessment of sorbitan caprylate, sorbitan cocoate, sorbitan diisostearate, sorbitan dioleate, sorbitan distearate, sorbitan isostearate, sorbitan olivate, sorbitan sesquiisostearate, sorbitan sesquistearate, and sorbitan triisostearate.
  • Previously, the Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel had reviewed the safety of several of these sorbitan fatty acid esters (Sorbitan Laurate, Sorbitan Oleate, Sorbitan Palmitate, Sorbitan Sesquioleate, Sorbitan Stearate, Sorbitan Trioleate, and Sorbitan Tristearate).
  • This safety assessment is an addendum to that report that includes Sorbitan Caprylate, Sorbitan Cocoate, Sorbitan Diisostearate, Sorbitan Dioleate, Sorbitan Distearate, Sorbitan Isostearate, Sorbitan Olivate, Sorbitan Sesquiisostearate, Sorbitan Sesquistearate, and Sorbitan Triisostearate.
  • They were generally minimal to mild skin irritants in animal studies, except that Sorbitan Isostearate applied to the skin was a moderate irritant in one rabbit study and when injected intradermally caused mild to severe irritation in guinea pigs.
  • In clinical tests, Sorbitan fatty acid esters were generally minimal to mild skin irritants and were nonsensitizing, but Sorbitan Sesquioleate did produce an allergic reaction in fewer than 1% of patients with suspected contact dermatitis and addition of Sorbitan Sesquioleate to the components of a fragrance mix used in patch testing increased both irritant and allergic reactions to the fragrance mix.
  • [MeSH-major] Consumer Product Safety. Cosmetics / adverse effects. Polysorbates / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 12042063.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-5818
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cosmetics; 0 / Polysorbates
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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52. |......... 8%  Lanigan RS, Yamarik TA, Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel: Final report on the safety assessment of PEG-6, -8, and -20 sorbitan beeswax. Int J Toxicol; 2001;20 Suppl 4:27-38
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Final report on the safety assessment of PEG-6, -8, and -20 sorbitan beeswax.
  • This safety assessment relied upon the available data from previous safety assessments of Beeswax, Synthetic Beeswax, Sorbitan Esters, PEGs, and PEG Sorbitan fatty acid esters, also known as Polysorbates.
  • PEGs are readily absorbed through damaged skin and are associated with contact dermatitis and systemic toxicity in burn patients.
  • PEGs were not sensitizing to normal skin.
  • Neither Beeswax nor Synthetic Beeswax produced significant acute animal toxicity, ocular irritation, skin irritation, or skin sensitization.
  • Sorbitan fatty acid esters were relatively nontoxic via ingestion, generally were not skin irritants or sensitizers, and were not mutagenic or carcinogenic.
  • Sorbitan Laurate was a cocarcinogen in a mouse skin-painting study.
  • Undiluted PEG-6 Sorbitan Beeswax was nonirritating to the eyes of rabbits and was non-irritating to intact and abraded skin of rabbits.
  • PEG-20 Sorbitan Beeswax was only minimally irritating to rabbit eyes at concentrations as high as 30%, and was not a significant skin irritant in rabbits exposed to a product with PEG-20 Sorbitan Beeswax at 2%.
  • [MeSH-major] Consumer Product Safety. Cosmetics / toxicity. Polyethylene Glycols / toxicity. Surface-Active Agents / toxicity. Toxicity Tests. Waxes / toxicity

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  • HSDB. structure - 7,12-DIMETHYLBENZ(A)ANTHRACENE.
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  • (PMID = 11800050.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-5818
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cosmetics; 0 / Polyethylene Glycols; 0 / Surface-Active Agents; 0 / Waxes; 0 / polyethylene glycol-20 sorbitan beeswax; 0 / polyethylene glycol-6 sorbitan beeswax; 0 / polyethylene glycol-8 sorbitan beeswax; 57-97-6 / 9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene; 8012-89-3 / beeswax
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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53. |......... 8%  Final report on the safety assessment of Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Oil, Hydrogenated Peanut Oil, Peanut Acid, Peanut Glycerides, and Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Flour. Int J Toxicol; 2001;20 Suppl 2:65-77
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Final report on the safety assessment of Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Oil, Hydrogenated Peanut Oil, Peanut Acid, Peanut Glycerides, and Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Flour.
  • The oils and glycerides function in cosmetic formulations as skin-conditioning agents.
  • When applied to the skin, Peanut Oil can enhance the absorption of other compounds.
  • Formulators were cautioned that the oils, acids, or glycerides may enhance penetration and can affect the use of other ingredients whose safety assessment was based on their lack of absorption.
  • Peanut (Arachis Hypogaea) Flour, however, is sufficiently different from the above ingredients such that its safety can not be supported by studies using the oil.
  • Absent the additional data, it was concluded that the available data are insufficient to support the safety of Peanut (Arachis Hypogaea) Flour for use in cosmetic products.
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Cutaneous. Administration, Oral. Aflatoxins / analysis. Animals. Carcinogenicity Tests. Flour / toxicity. Glycerides / chemistry. Glycerides / toxicity. Guinea Pigs. Haplorhini. Humans. Hydrogenation. Liver / drug effects. Male. Mice. Rabbits. Rats. Reference Values. Safety. Toxicity Tests. Urticaria / chemically induced

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  • HSDB. structure - AFLATOXINS.
  • HSDB. structure - PEANUT OIL.
  • HSDB. structure - VEGETABLE OIL.
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  • (PMID = 11558642.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-5818
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aflatoxins; 0 / Cosmetics; 0 / Glycerides; 0 / Plant Oils; 8002-03-7 / arachis oil
  • [Number-of-references] 74
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54. |......... 8%  Nair B: Final report on the safety assessment of Benzyl Alcohol, Benzoic Acid, and Sodium Benzoate. Int J Toxicol; 2001;20 Suppl 3:23-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Final report on the safety assessment of Benzyl Alcohol, Benzoic Acid, and Sodium Benzoate.
  • The available safety tests are not considered sufficient to support the safety of these ingredients in formulations where inhalation is a route of exposure.
  • Inhalation toxicity data are needed to complete the safety assessment of these ingredients where inhalation can occur.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Carcinogenicity Tests. Consumer Product Safety / standards. Dermatitis, Phototoxic / etiology. Humans. Inhalation Exposure / adverse effects. Lethal Dose 50. Muscle, Smooth / drug effects. Mutagenicity Tests. Photosensitivity Disorders / chemically induced. Skin Diseases / chemically induced. Toxicity Tests, Acute. United States. United States Food and Drug Administration / standards. Urticaria / chemically induced

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Cosmetics.
  • HSDB. structure - BENZYL ALCOHOL.
  • HSDB. structure - SODIUM BENZOATE.
  • HSDB. structure - BENZOIC ACID.
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  • (PMID = 11766131.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-5818
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cosmetics; 65-85-0 / Benzoic Acid; LKG8494WBH / Benzyl Alcohol; OJ245FE5EU / Sodium Benzoate
  • [Number-of-references] 91
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55. |......... 8%  Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel: Final report of the safety assessment of methacrylate ester monomers used in nail enhancement products. Int J Toxicol; 2005;24 Suppl 5:53-100
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Final report of the safety assessment of methacrylate ester monomers used in nail enhancement products.
  • This safety assessment addresses 22 other methacrylate esters reported by industry to be present in small percentages as artificial nail builders in cosmetic products.
  • Chronic dermal exposure of mice to PEG-4 Dimethacrylate (25 mg, 2 x weekly for 80 weeks) or Trimethylolpropane Trimethacrylate (25 mg, 2 x weekly for 80 weeks) did not result in increased incidence of skin or visceral tumors.
  • The carcinogenicity of Triethylene Glycol Dimethacrylate (5, 25, or 50%) was assessed in a mouse skin painting study (50 microl for 5 days/week for 78 weeks), but was not carcinogenic at any dose level tested.
  • However, data demonstrated the rates of polymerization of these Methacrylates were similar to that of Ethyl Methacrylate and there would be little monomer available exposure to the skin.
  • In consideration of the animal toxicity data, the CIR Expert Panel decided that these methacrylate esters should be restricted to the nail and must not be in contact with the skin.
  • Accordingly, these methacrylate esters are safe as used in nail enhancement products when skin contact is avoided.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Consumer Product Safety. Drug Administration Routes. Expert Testimony. Female. Humans. Skin Absorption. Species Specificity. Toxicity Tests

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  • (PMID = 16596769.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-5818
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cosmetics; 0 / Methacrylates
  • [Number-of-references] 147
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56. |......... 8%  Final report of the amended safety assessment of Dioscorea Villosa (Wild Yam) root extract. Int J Toxicol; 2004;23 Suppl 2:49-54
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Final report of the amended safety assessment of Dioscorea Villosa (Wild Yam) root extract.
  • A single application of undiluted extract to the intact and abraded skin of rabbits produced sufficient irritation for the test material to be rated"irritant,"but a 10% dilution was not irritating.
  • Although the concentration at which the actual plant extract is used in cosmetic products is low, one of the primary safety concerns with this plant extract is the possible metabolic/endocrine activity, e.g., estrogen-like or progesterone-like activity as a result of the presence of small amounts of plant phytosterols such as diosgenin.
  • Extracts prepared as described in this safety assessment, with an upper limit of 3.5% diosgenin, did not have any estrogenic activity, demonstrating that it is possible to produce material that does not present this specific safety concern.
  • This conclusion regarding safety, however, is valid only for extracts prepared in a manner that produces a similar chemical profile as that described in this report, particularly as regards diosgenin.
  • Extracts not prepared in a manner that produces a similar chemical profile would be considered safe if they have a similar safety test profile.
  • [MeSH-major] Consumer Product Safety. Cosmetics / toxicity. Dioscorea / toxicity. Plant Extracts / toxicity. Plant Roots / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 15513824.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-5818
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cosmetics; 0 / Plant Extracts
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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57. |......... 8%  Final report of the cosmetic ingredient review expert panel on the safety assessment of Polyisobutene and Hydrogenated Polyisobutene as used in cosmetics. Int J Toxicol; 2008;27 Suppl 4:83-106
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Final report of the cosmetic ingredient review expert panel on the safety assessment of Polyisobutene and Hydrogenated Polyisobutene as used in cosmetics.
  • Hydrogenated Polyisobutene functions as a skin-conditioning agent-emollient and nonaqueous viscosity-increasing agent with a wide range of uses in cosmetic formulations.
  • However, the overall information available on the types of products in which these ingredients are used and at what concentrations indicate a pattern of use, which was considered by the Expert Panel in assessing safety.
  • Because lifetime exposure studies using rats and dogs exposed to Polybutene failed to demonstrate any carcinogenic or tumor promotion effect, and a three-generation reproductive/developmental toxicity study produced no adverse effects, the CIR Expert Panel does not believe these large, mostly insoluble polymers present any risks in the practices of use and concentration as described in this safety assessment.
  • [MeSH-major] Consumer Product Safety. Cosmetics / toxicity. Polyenes / toxicity. Polymers / toxicity

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  • HSDB. structure - POLYISOBUTYLENE.
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  • (PMID = 19101833.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-874X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cosmetics; 0 / Polyenes; 0 / Polymers; 9003-27-4 / polyisobutylene
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58. |......... 8%  Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel: Final report on the safety assessment of HC Red No. 7. Int J Toxicol; 2008;27 Suppl 1:45-54
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Final report on the safety assessment of HC Red No. 7.
  • Around 0.10% of the applied HC Red No. 7 was absorbed in human dermatomed skin samples.
  • Due to its low dermal absorption potential and its use as a semipermanent hair dye, the CIR Expert Panel believes there is low risk of genotoxicity and that HC Red No. 7 is safe as a hair dye ingredient in the practices of use and concentrations as described in this safety assessment.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Consensus. Consumer Product Safety. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Humans. Risk Assessment. Toxicity Tests

  • HSDB. structure - ETHANOL.
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  • (PMID = 18569161.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-874X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hair Dyes; 0 / Mutagens; 0 / Nitro Compounds; 3K9958V90M / Ethanol; 5WRI22G12X / 1-amino-2-nitro-4-(beta-hydroxy-ethyl)aminobenzene
  • [Number-of-references] 47
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59. |......... 8%  Cosmetic Ingredients Review Expert Panel: Final report on the amended safety assessment of sodium polynaphthalenesulfonate and sodium naphthalenesulfonate. Int J Toxicol; 2003;22 Suppl 2:37-44
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Final report on the amended safety assessment of sodium polynaphthalenesulfonate and sodium naphthalenesulfonate.
  • Only around 1% of SNS in a 1-mg/ml solution applied to porcine skin penetrated the skin after 24 h, a similar amount was found noncovalently bound to the skin, and the concentration of material applied to the surface of the skin was largely unchanged.
  • The Panel considered the low penetration in concert with the low concentrations of use of these ingredients and the absence of significant overall toxicity and the limited negative genotoxicity findings sufficient to support a conclusion that SNS and SPNS are safe as used in cosmetic formulations intended to be applied to the skin.
  • Use of SPNS in a lipstick formulation, was not considered to be different from application to the skin in that the barrier properties of the skin do not apply when these ingredients may contact mucous membranes or may be ingested.
  • Accordingly, the Panel concluded that the available data are insufficient to support the safety of SNS and SPNS in cosmetic formulations that may contact mucous membranes or be ingested.
  • The additional data needed to make a safety assessment for these uses include dermal reproductive and developmental toxicity data and one genotoxicity assay in a mammalian system, and if that study is positive, then a 2-year dermal carcinogenicity study using National Toxicology Program (NTP) methods may be needed.
  • [MeSH-major] Consumer Product Safety. Cosmetics / toxicity. Naphthalenesulfonates / toxicity

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  • (PMID = 14555418.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-5818
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cosmetics; 0 / Naphthalenesulfonates; 0 / Polymers; 0 / polynaphthalenesulfonic acid
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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60. |......... 8%  Elmore AR, Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel: Final report on the safety assessment of potassium silicate, sodium metasilicate, and sodium silicate. Int J Toxicol; 2005;24 Suppl 1:103-17
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Final report on the safety assessment of potassium silicate, sodium metasilicate, and sodium silicate.
  • A skin freshener containing Sodium Silicate was nonirritating.
  • Sodium Metasilicate (37% in a detergent) mixed with water was a severe skin irritant when tested on intact and abraded human skin, but 6%, 7%, and 13% Sodium Silicate were negligible skin irritants to intact and abraded human skin.
  • However, because these ingredients have limited dermal absorption and Sodium Metasilicate is a GRAS direct food substance, the Panel deemed the ingredients safe for use in cosmetic products in the practices of use and concentration described in this safety assessment, when formulated to avoid irritation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Expert Testimony. Female. Humans. Industry. Male. Mice. Organizations, Nonprofit. Rats. Risk Assessment. Toxicity Tests

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  • HSDB. structure - SODIUM SILICATE.
  • HSDB. structure - SODIUM METASILICATE.
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  • (PMID = 15981734.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-5818
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cosmetics; 0 / Irritants; 0 / Potassium Compounds; 0 / Silicates; 052612U92L / sodium metasilicate; 1344-09-8 / sodium silicate
  • [Number-of-references] 52
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61. |......... 8%  Final report on the safety assessment of Triethylene Glycol and PEG-4. Int J Toxicol; 2006;25 Suppl 2:121-38
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Final report on the safety assessment of Triethylene Glycol and PEG-4.
  • Triethylene Glycol is a fragrance ingredient and viscosity decreasing agent in cosmetic formulations, with a maximum concentration of use of 0.08% in skin-cleansing products.
  • Triethylene Glycol was not irritating to the skin of rabbits and produced only minimal injury to the eye.
  • In one dermal study, PEG-2 Cocamine was determined to be corrosive to rabbit skin, causing eschar and necrosis.
  • In clinical studies on normal skin, PEG-6 and PEG-8 caused mild cases of immediate hypersensitivity; PEG-8 was not a sensitizer; PEG-2 Stearate was not an irritant, a sensitizer, or a photosensitizer; and PEG-6 Stearate was not an irritant or sensitizer.
  • In damaged skin, cases of systemic toxicity and contact dermatitis in burn patients were attributed to a PEG-based topical ointment.
  • The need for additional data to demonstrate the safety of PEGs Cocamine was related to the Cocamine moiety and is not relevant here.
  • The Panel reminded formulators of cosmetic products that, as with other PEG compounds, Triethylene Glycol and PEG-4 should not be used on damaged skin because of cases of systemic toxicity and contact dermatitis in burn patients have been attributed to a PEG-based topical ointment.
  • Based on its consideration of the available information, the CIR Expert Panel concluded that Triethylene Glycol and PEG-4 are safe as cosmetic ingredients in the present practices and concentrations of use as described in this safety assessment.
  • [MeSH-major] Consumer Product Safety. Cosmetics / toxicity. Polyethylene Glycols / toxicity
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Expert Testimony. Humans. Risk Assessment

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  • HSDB. structure - TRIETHYLENE GLYCOL.
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  • (PMID = 17090481.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-5818
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cosmetics; 0 / Polyethylene Glycols; 3P5SU53360 / triethylene glycol
  • [Number-of-references] 92
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62. |......... 8%  Andersen FA, Bergfeld WF, Belsito DV, Hill RA, Klaassen CD, Liebler DC, Marks JG Jr, Shank RC, Slaga TJ, Snyder PW: Final amended safety assessment of hydroquinone as used in cosmetics. Int J Toxicol; 2010 Nov-Dec;29(6 Suppl):274S-87
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Final amended safety assessment of hydroquinone as used in cosmetics.
  • Hydroquinone is also used as a skin bleaching agent.
  • Safety and toxicity information indicate that hydroquinone is dermally absorbed in humans from both aqueous and alcoholic formulations and is excreted mainly as the glucuronide or sulfate conjugates.
  • [MeSH-major] Consumer Product Safety. Cosmetics / toxicity. Hydroquinones / chemistry. Hydroquinones / toxicity. Skin

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Cosmetics.
  • HSDB. structure - HYDROQUINONE.
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  • (PMID = 21164074.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-874X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Cosmetics; 0 / Hydroquinones; 123-31-9 / hydroquinone
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63. |......... 8%  Final report on the safety assessment of Trichloroethane. Int J Toxicol; 2008;27 Suppl 4:107-38
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Final report on the safety assessment of Trichloroethane.
  • In humans, Trichloroethane is rapidly absorbed through the skin and eliminated in exhaled air and a very small percentage is excreted in urine.
  • Rabbits had slight reddening and scaling after 10 24-h applications to abdominal skin of Trichloroethane mixed with 2.4% to 3.0% dioxane, and slight to moderate erythema, slight edema, and slight exfoliation was observed when 75% Trichloroethane and 25% tetrachloroethylene were applied to rabbit ears for 11 days.
  • At issue for this assessment is the safety of direct exposure to individuals as a result of exposure to cosmetic products that may contain Trichloroethane.
  • The Expert Panel found the available data to be sufficient to support the safety of Trichloroethane as a solvent in cosmetic products.
  • [MeSH-major] Consumer Product Safety. Cosmetics / toxicity. Solvents / toxicity. Trichloroethanes / toxicity

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  • HSDB. structure - TRICHLOROETHANE.
  • HSDB. structure - 1,1,1-TRICHLOROETHANE.
  • NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .
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  • (PMID = 19101834.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-874X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cosmetics; 0 / Solvents; 0 / Trichloroethanes; 113C650IR1 / 1,1,1-trichloroethane
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64. |......... 8%  Becker LC, Bergfeld WF, Belsito DV, Hill RA, Klaassen CD, Liebler DC, Marks JG Jr, Shank RC, Slaga TJ, Snyder PW, Andersen FA: Amended safety assessment of dodecylbenzenesulfonate, decylbenzenesulfonate, and tridecylbenzenesulfonate salts as used in cosmetics. Int J Toxicol; 2010 Nov-Dec;29(6 Suppl):288S-305
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Amended safety assessment of dodecylbenzenesulfonate, decylbenzenesulfonate, and tridecylbenzenesulfonate salts as used in cosmetics.
  • At 15% concentrations, sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate was severely irritating to rabbit skin.
  • [MeSH-major] Alkanesulfonic Acids / adverse effects. Benzenesulfonates / toxicity. Consumer Product Safety. Cosmetics / toxicity. Surface-Active Agents / toxicity
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Detergents / chemistry. Detergents / toxicity. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Humans. Irritants. Mutagenicity Tests. Physicochemical Phenomena. Rabbits. Skin / metabolism. Toxicity Tests, Acute. Toxicity Tests, Chronic

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  • HSDB. structure - SODIUM DODECYLBENZENESULFONATE.
  • HSDB. structure - DODECYL BENZENE SULFONIC ACID.
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  • (PMID = 21164075.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-874X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Alkanesulfonic Acids; 0 / Benzenesulfonates; 0 / Cosmetics; 0 / Detergents; 0 / Irritants; 0 / Surface-Active Agents; 0 / alkylbenzyl sulfonic acid; 60NSK897G9 / dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid
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65. |......... 8%  Becker LC, Bergfeld WF, Belsito DV, Klaassen CD, Marks JG Jr, Shank RC, Slaga TJ, Snyder PW, Alan Andersen F: Amended safety assessment of sodium picramate and picramic acid. Int J Toxicol; 2009 Nov-Dec;28(6 Suppl 2):205S-16S
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Amended safety assessment of sodium picramate and picramic acid.
  • The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel recognized that adding picramic acid to a hair-dye formulation likely results in formation of a salt such as sodium picramate, which suggested that safety test data for one ingredient would be applicable to the other.
  • Hair dyes containing these ingredients bear a caution statement and patch test instructions for determining whether the product causes skin irritation.
  • The panel finds that the available data support the safety of these colorants in hair dyes and expects that sodium picramate would be used at concentrations comparable to those reported for picramic acid.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Bacteria / drug effects. Bacteria / genetics. Carcinogenicity Tests. Carcinogens / toxicity. Cosmetics. Eye Diseases / chemically induced. Eye Diseases / pathology. Female. Humans. Irritants / toxicity. Mutagenicity Tests. Mutagens / toxicity. Pregnancy. Rabbits. Reproduction / drug effects. Safety. Skin Diseases / chemically induced. Skin Diseases / pathology

  • HSDB. structure - 2,4-DINITROPHENOL.
  • HSDB. structure - 4,6-DINITRO-2-AMINOPHENOL.
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  • (PMID = 20086193.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-874X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / Cosmetics; 0 / Hair Dyes; 0 / Irritants; 0 / Mutagens; 5VDQ7GK8L3 / picramic acid; Q13SKS21MN / 2,4-Dinitrophenol
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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66. |......... 8%  Fiume MM, Heldreth B, Bergfeld WF, Belsito DV, Hill RA, Klaassen CD, Liebler D, Marks JG Jr, Shank RC, Slaga TJ, Snyder PW, Andersen FA: Safety assessment of alkyl PEG ethers as used in cosmetics. Int J Toxicol; 2012 Sep-Oct;31(5 Suppl):169S-244S
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Safety assessment of alkyl PEG ethers as used in cosmetics.
  • The CIR Expert Panel assessed the safety of Alkyl PEG Ethers as used in cosmetics.
  • These ingredients primarily function in cosmetics as surfactants, and some have additional functions as skin-conditioning agents, fragrance ingredients, and emulsion stabilizers.
  • The Panel reviewed available relevant animal and clinical data, as well as information from previous CIR reports; when data were not available for individual ingredients, the Panel extrapolated from the existing data to support safety.
  • [MeSH-major] Consumer Product Safety. Cosmetics / chemistry. Ethers / toxicity. Polyethylene Glycols / toxicity. Surface-Active Agents / toxicity
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Cutaneous. Alkylation. Animals. Dermatologic Agents / administration & dosage. Dermatologic Agents / chemistry. Dermatologic Agents / pharmacokinetics. Dermatologic Agents / toxicity. Humans. Lethal Dose 50. No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level. Skin Care / adverse effects. Toxicity Tests

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  • (PMID = 23064774.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-874X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cosmetics; 0 / Dermatologic Agents; 0 / Ethers; 0 / Polyethylene Glycols; 0 / Surface-Active Agents
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67. |......... 8%  Fiume MM, Bergfeld WF, Belsito DV, Hill RA, Klaassen CD, Liebler D, Marks JG Jr, Shank RC, Slaga TJ, Snyder PW, Andersen FA: Safety assessment of propylene glycol, tripropylene glycol, and PPGs as used in cosmetics. Int J Toxicol; 2012 Sep-Oct;31(5 Suppl):245S-60S
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Safety assessment of propylene glycol, tripropylene glycol, and PPGs as used in cosmetics.
  • Propylene glycol is an aliphatic alcohol that functions as a skin conditioning agent, viscosity decreasing agent, solvent, and fragrance ingredient in cosmetics.
  • Polypropylene glycols (PPGs), including PPG-3, PPG-7, PPG-9, PPG-12, PPG-13, PPG-15, PPG-16, PPG-17, PPG-20, PPG-26, PPG-30, PPG-33, PPG-34, PPG-51, PPG-52, and PPG-69, function primarily as skin conditioning agents, with some solvent use.
  • The majority of the safety and toxicity information presented is for propylene glycol (PG).
  • The CIR Expert Panel determined that the available information support the safety of tripropylene glycol as well as all the PPGs.
  • [MeSH-major] Consumer Product Safety. Cosmetics / chemistry. Dermatologic Agents / toxicity. Polymers / toxicity. Propylene Glycol / toxicity. Propylene Glycols / toxicity
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Cutaneous. Animals. Antioxidants / administration & dosage. Antioxidants / chemistry. Antioxidants / pharmacokinetics. Antioxidants / toxicity. Humans. Skin Care / adverse effects. Toxicity Tests. Viscosity

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  • HSDB. structure - POLYPROPYLENE GLYCOL.
  • HSDB. structure - PROPYLENE GLYCOL.
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  • (PMID = 23064775.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-874X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Cosmetics; 0 / Dermatologic Agents; 0 / Polymers; 0 / Propylene Glycols; 0 / tripropylene glycol; 25322-69-4 / polypropylene glycol; 6DC9Q167V3 / Propylene Glycol
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68. |......... 8%  Johnson W Jr, Bergfeld WF, Belsito DV, Hill RA, Klaassen CD, Liebler D, Marks JG Jr, Shank RC, Slaga TJ, Snyder PW, Andersen FA: Safety assessment of 1,2-glycols as used in cosmetics. Int J Toxicol; 2012 Sep-Oct;31(5 Suppl):147S-68S
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Safety assessment of 1,2-glycols as used in cosmetics.
  • Caprylyl glycol and related 1,2-glycols are used mostly as skin and hair conditioning agents and viscosity agents in cosmetic products, and caprylyl glycol and pentylene glycol also function as cosmetic preservatives.
  • The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel noted that, while these ingredients are dermally absorbed, modeling data predicted decreased skin penetration of longer chain 1,2-glycols.
  • Because the negative oral toxicity data on shorter chain 1,2-glycols and genotoxicity data support the safety of the 1,2-glycols reviewed in this safety assessment, the Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe in the present practices of use and concentration described in this safety assessment.
  • [MeSH-major] Consumer Product Safety. Cosmetics / chemistry. Dermatologic Agents / toxicity. Glycols / toxicity
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Cutaneous. Animals. Humans. Lethal Dose 50. No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level. Octanols / administration & dosage. Octanols / chemistry. Octanols / pharmacokinetics. Octanols / toxicity. Pentanes / administration & dosage. Pentanes / chemistry. Pentanes / pharmacokinetics. Pentanes / toxicity. Skin Care / adverse effects. Toxicity Tests. Viscosity

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  • (PMID = 23064773.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-874X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cosmetics; 0 / Dermatologic Agents; 0 / Glycols; 0 / Octanols; 0 / Pentanes; 00YIU5438U / 1,2-octanediol; 50C1307PZG / 1,2-pentanediol
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69. |......... 8%  Yamarik TA: Safety assessment of dichlorophene and chlorophene. Int J Toxicol; 2004;23 Suppl 1:1-27
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Safety assessment of dichlorophene and chlorophene.
  • Chlorophene was incompletely absorbed through the rat skin.
  • Dichlorophene up to 10% concentration resulted in no to minimal irritation when applied to the intact and abraded skin of rabbits.
  • A 1-year National Toxicology Program (NTP) study concluded that Chlorophene was a cutaneous irritant and a weak skin tumor promoter but had no activity as an initiator or complete carcinogen.
  • Overall, the available data were insufficient to support safety of Dichlorophene or Chlorophene.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Bacterial Agents / toxicity. Antifungal Agents / toxicity. Consumer Product Safety. Cosmetics / toxicity. Dichlorophen / analogs & derivatives. Dichlorophen / toxicity. Preservatives, Pharmaceutical / toxicity
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Cutaneous. Administration, Inhalation. Administration, Oral. Animals. Humans. Molecular Structure. Risk Assessment. Toxicity Tests

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Antibiotics.
  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Cosmetics.
  • HSDB. structure - O-BENZYL-P-CHLOROPHENOL.
  • HSDB. structure - DICHLOROPHENE.
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  • (PMID = 15162836.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-5818
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Antifungal Agents; 0 / Cosmetics; 0 / Preservatives, Pharmaceutical; 7560BB0BO3 / clorophene; T1J0JOU64O / Dichlorophen
  • [Number-of-references] 129
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70. |......... 8%  Osimitz TG, Grothaus RH: The present safety assessment of deet. J Am Mosq Control Assoc; 1995 Jun;11(2 Pt 2):274-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The present safety assessment of deet.
  • Since its first use in a consumer product in 1956, billions of applications have been made to human skin.
  • Information about the safety of deet comes from the human clinical literature, animal toxicology studies, and poison control centers' experiences with deet.
  • Recently reported animal safety studies have examined potential neurotoxicity following multigenerational dosing.
  • [MeSH-major] Consumer Product Safety. DEET

  • HSDB. structure - DEET.
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  • (PMID = 7595461.001).
  • [ISSN] 8756-971X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 134-62-3 / DEET
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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71. |......... 8%  'Becker LC, Bergfeld WF, Belsito DV, Hill RA, Klaassen CD, Liebler D, Marks JG Jr, Shank RC, Slaga TJ, Snyder PW, Andersen FA: Safety assessment of alkyl benzoates as used in cosmetics. Int J Toxicol; 2012 Nov-Dec;31(6 Suppl):342S-72S
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Safety assessment of alkyl benzoates as used in cosmetics.
  • The functions of alkyl benzoates in cosmetics include fragrance ingredients, skin-conditioning agents--emollient, skin-conditioning agents--miscellaneous, preservatives, solvents, and plasticizers.
  • The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel reviewed the relevant animal and human data and noted gaps in the available safety data for some of the alkyl benzoates.
  • [MeSH-major] Benzoates / toxicity. Consumer Product Safety. Cosmetics / toxicity. Surface-Active Agents / toxicity. Toxicity Tests
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Humans. Risk Assessment. Structure-Activity Relationship

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  • (PMID = 23283706.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-874X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzoates; 0 / Cosmetics; 0 / Surface-Active Agents
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72. |......... 8%  Andersen A: Final report on the safety assessment of benzaldehyde. Int J Toxicol; 2006;25 Suppl 1:11-27
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Final report on the safety assessment of benzaldehyde.
  • Because Benzaldehyde rapidly metabolizes to Benzoic Acid in the skin, the available dermal irritation and sensitization data demonstrating no adverse reactions to Benzoic Acid were considered supportive of the safety of Benzaldehyde.
  • Benzaldehyde is absorbed through skin and by the lungs, distributes to all well-perfused organs, but does not accumulate in any specific tissue type.
  • Although there are limited irritation and sensitization data available for Benzaldehyde, the available dermal irritation and sensitization data and ultraviolet (UV) absorption and phototoxicity data demonstrating no adverse reactions to Benzoic Acid support the safety of Benzaldehyde as currently used in cosmetic products.

  • HSDB. structure - BENZALDEHYDE.
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  • (PMID = 16835129.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-5818
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Benzaldehydes; 0 / Cosmetics; TA269SD04T / benzaldehyde
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73. |......... 8%  Panyosak A, Manosroi J, Rojanasakul Y, Manosroi A: Safety assessment of azelaic acid and its derivatives entrapped in nanovesicles. Hum Exp Toxicol; 2009 Jun;28(6-7):387-92
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Safety assessment of azelaic acid and its derivatives entrapped in nanovesicles.
  • The aim of this study was to determine the safety of azelaic acid (AA) and its derivatives in nanovesicles for pharmaceutical and cosmetic uses.
  • The irritation of AA, AACD and DA entrapped and not entrapped in nanovesicles on rabbit skin was examined according to the Environmental Protection Agency health effect test guidelines.
  • AA and its derivatives were safe for topical use when entrapped in nanovesicles because of no toxicity to normal cell lines and no allergy on rabbit skin.

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  • HSDB. structure - 1,7-HEPTANEDICARBOXYLIC ACID.
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  • (PMID = 19755450.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-0903
  • [Journal-full-title] Human & experimental toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum Exp Toxicol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cosmetics; 0 / Dermatologic Agents; 0 / Dicarboxylic Acids; 0 / Liposomes; 0 / Pharmaceutical Preparations; 123-99-9 / azelaic acid
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74. |......... 8%  Casalta E, Montel MC: Safety assessment of dairy microorganisms: the Lactococcus genus. Int J Food Microbiol; 2008 Sep 1;126(3):271-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Safety assessment of dairy microorganisms: the Lactococcus genus.
  • Their biotope is animal skin and plants.
  • [MeSH-major] Consumer Product Safety. Cultured Milk Products / microbiology. Lactococcus / classification. Phylogeny
  • [MeSH-minor] Food Microbiology. Humans. Lactococcus lactis / classification. Lactococcus lactis / isolation & purification. Risk Assessment. Species Specificity

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  • (PMID = 17976847.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-3460
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of food microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Food Microbiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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75. |......... 8%  Coulter DM: Short term safety assessment of cilazapril. N Z Med J; 1993 Nov 24;106(968):497-9
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  • [Title] Short term safety assessment of cilazapril.
  • Cilazapril had a higher proportion of neurological reactions (p < 0.001) (mainly headache) but a lower proportion of skin reactions (p = 0.001) than the other ACE inhibitors.

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  • (PMID = 8247432.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-8446
  • [Journal-full-title] The New Zealand medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] N. Z. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] NEW ZEALAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 19KW7PI29F / Cilazapril
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76. |......... 8%  Johnson W Jr: Safety assessment of MIBK (methyl isobutyl ketone). Int J Toxicol; 2004;23 Suppl 1:29-57
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Safety assessment of MIBK (methyl isobutyl ketone).
  • MIBK was an ocular and skin irritant in animal tests.
  • [MeSH-major] Consumer Product Safety. Cosmetics / toxicity. Methyl n-Butyl Ketone / toxicity. Solvents / toxicity
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Drug Administration Routes. Humans. Risk Assessment. Toxicity Tests

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  • HSDB. structure - METHYL ISOBUTYL KETONE.
  • HSDB. structure - 2-HEXANONE.
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  • (PMID = 15162837.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-5818
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cosmetics; 0 / Solvents; 6QDY60NH6N / Methyl n-Butyl Ketone; U5T7B88CNP / methyl isobutyl ketone
  • [Number-of-references] 122
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77. |......... 8%  Fiume MZ, Cosmetic Ingredients Review Expert Panel: Final report on the safety assessment of triacetin. Int J Toxicol; 2003;22 Suppl 2:1-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Final report on the safety assessment of triacetin.
  • Triacetin was, at most, slightly irritating to guinea pig skin.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Infective Agents, Local / toxicity. Consumer Product Safety. Cosmetics / toxicity. Triacetin / toxicity

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  • HSDB. structure - TRIACETIN.
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  • (PMID = 14555416.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-5818
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Infective Agents, Local; 0 / Cosmetics; XHX3C3X673 / Triacetin
  • [Number-of-references] 54
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78. |......... 8%  Final report on the safety assessment of phytantriol. Int J Toxicol; 2007;26 Suppl 1:107-14
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  • [Title] Final report on the safety assessment of phytantriol.
  • Dermal penetration is low; skin permeability was calculated as log Kp = - 1.734.
  • Phytantriol at 100% was a severe skin irritant in animal tests.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Clinical Trials as Topic. Consumer Product Safety. Humans. Toxicity Tests

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  • NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .
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  • (PMID = 17365138.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-5818
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cosmetics; 0 / Fatty Alcohols; 8LVI07A72W / 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-1,2,3-hexadecanetriol
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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79. |......... 8%  Clary JJ, Feron VJ, van Velthuijsen JA: Safety assessment of lactate esters. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol; 1998 Apr;27(2):88-97
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  • [Title] Safety assessment of lactate esters.
  • Lactate esters have an oral LD50 greater than 2000 mg/kg and the inhalation LC50 is generally above 5000 mg/m3 and they may be potential eye and skin irritants, but not skin sensitizers.

  • HSDB. structure - ETHYL LACTATE.
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  • [Copyright] Copyright 1998 Academic Press.
  • (PMID = 9671563.001).
  • [ISSN] 0273-2300
  • [Journal-full-title] Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology : RTP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 2-ethylhexyl lactate; 0 / Esters; 0 / Irritants; 0 / Lactates; 0 / Solvents; 0UI63W814U / n-butyl lactate; 585-24-0 / isobutyl lactate; F3P750VW8I / ethyl lactate
  • [Number-of-references] 67
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80. |......... 7%  Lanigan RS: Final report on the safety assessment of Cocoyl Sarcosine, Lauroyl Sarcosine, Myristoyl Sarcosine, Oleoyl Sarcosine, Stearoyl Sarcosine, Sodium Cocoyl Sarcosinate, Sodium Lauroyl Sarcosinate, Sodium Myristoyl Sarcosinate, Ammonium Cocoyl Sarcosinate, and Ammonium Lauroyl Sarcosinate. Int J Toxicol; 2001;20 Suppl 1:1-14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Final report on the safety assessment of Cocoyl Sarcosine, Lauroyl Sarcosine, Myristoyl Sarcosine, Oleoyl Sarcosine, Stearoyl Sarcosine, Sodium Cocoyl Sarcosinate, Sodium Lauroyl Sarcosinate, Sodium Myristoyl Sarcosinate, Ammonium Cocoyl Sarcosinate, and Ammonium Lauroyl Sarcosinate.
  • This safety assessment addresses cosmetic ingredients that are N-acyl derivatives of sarcosine and are generally referred to as acyl sarcosines, and those that are salts, known generally as acyl sarcosinates.
  • Previous assessments have addressed the safety of each of the fatty acids that appear in these acyl sarcosines and sarcosinates (Coconut Acid, Oleic Acid, Lauric Acid, and Myristic Acid).
  • These ingredients are nonirritating and nonsensitizing to animal and human skin, although they can enhance the penetration of other ingredients through the skin.
  • For that reason, caution should be exhibited in formulating cosmetic products that contain these ingredients in combination with other ingredients whose safety is based on their lack of absorption or where dermal absorption is a concern (e.g., HC Yellow No. 4, Disperse Yellow 3).
  • Because of the absence of data on inhalation toxicity, however, it was concluded that the available data were not sufficient to support the safety of acyl sarcosines and sarcosinates as cosmetic ingredients in products where they are likely to be inhaled.
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Inhalation. Animals. Consumer Product Safety. Humans. Mutagens. Nitrosation. Skin / drug effects. Solubility. Teratogens. United States

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  • (PMID = 11358107.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-5818
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cosmetics; 0 / Mutagens; 0 / Surface-Active Agents; 0 / Teratogens; Z711V88R5F / Sarcosine
  • [Number-of-references] 47
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81. |......... 7%  Cohen AJ, Roe FJ: Review of lead toxicology relevant to the safety assessment of lead acetate as a hair colouring. Food Chem Toxicol; 1991 Jul;29(7):485-507
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  • [Title] Review of lead toxicology relevant to the safety assessment of lead acetate as a hair colouring.
  • The literature on lead toxicology has been critically reviewed to provide a safety assessment of lead acetate as a hair colouring.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Genes / drug effects. Humans. Neoplasms / chemically induced. Nervous System / drug effects. Reproduction / drug effects. Skin Absorption

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Lead Poisoning.
  • HSDB. structure - LEAD ACETATE.
  • HSDB. structure - LEAD, ELEMENTAL.
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  • (PMID = 1894216.001).
  • [ISSN] 0278-6915
  • [Journal-full-title] Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Food Chem. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] ENGLAND
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hair Dyes; 0 / Organometallic Compounds; 2P299V784P / Lead; RX077P88RY / lead acetate
  • [Number-of-references] 205
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82. |......... 7%  Burnett CL, Bergfeld WF, Belsito DV, Klaassen CD, Marks JG Jr, Shank RC, Slaga TJ, Snyder PW, Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel, Andersen FA: Final amended report on the safety assessment of Ammonium Thioglycolate, Butyl Thioglycolate, Calcium Thioglycolate, Ethanolamine Thioglycolate, Ethyl Thioglycolate, Glyceryl Thioglycolate, Isooctyl Thioglycolate, Isopropyl Thioglycolate, Magnesium Thioglycolate, Methyl Thioglycolate, Potassium Thioglycolate, Sodium Thioglycolate, and Thioglycolic Acid. Int J Toxicol; 2009 Jul-Aug;28(4 Suppl):68-133
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Final amended report on the safety assessment of Ammonium Thioglycolate, Butyl Thioglycolate, Calcium Thioglycolate, Ethanolamine Thioglycolate, Ethyl Thioglycolate, Glyceryl Thioglycolate, Isooctyl Thioglycolate, Isopropyl Thioglycolate, Magnesium Thioglycolate, Methyl Thioglycolate, Potassium Thioglycolate, Sodium Thioglycolate, and Thioglycolic Acid.
  • This safety assessment includes Ammonium and Glyceryl Thioglycolate and Thioglycolic Acid Butyl, Calcium, Ethanolamine, Ethyl, Isooctyl, Isopropyl, Magnesium, Methyl, Potassium, and Sodium Thioglycolate, as used in cosmetics.
  • Thioglycolates penetrate skin and distribute to the kidneys, lungs, small intestine, and spleen; excretion is primarily in urine.
  • Thioglycolates can be skin irritants in animal and in vitro tests, and can be sensitizers.
  • Thioglycolates were skin irritants in some clinical tests.

  • HSDB. structure - HYDROXYACETIC ACID.
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  • (PMID = 19636068.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-874X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cosmetics; 0 / Glycolates; 79-14-1 / glycolic acid
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83. |......... 7%  Burnett CL, Bergfeld WF, Belsito DV, Hill RA, Klaassen CD, Liebler DC, Marks JG Jr, Shank RC, Slaga TJ, Snyder PW, Andersen FA: Final report of the safety assessment of Kojic acid as used in cosmetics. Int J Toxicol; 2010 Nov-Dec;29(6 Suppl):244S-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Final report of the safety assessment of Kojic acid as used in cosmetics.
  • While some animal data suggested tumor promotion and weak carcinogenicity, kojic acid is slowly absorbed into the circulation from human skin and likely would not reach the threshold at which these effects were seen.
  • The available human sensitization data supported the safety of kojic acid at a use concentration of 2% in leave-on cosmetics.
  • Kojic acid depigmented black guinea pig skin at a concentration of 4%, but this effect was not seen at 1%.
  • The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel concluded that the 2 end points of concern, dermal sensitization and skin lightening, would not be seen at use concentrations below 1%; therefore, this ingredient is safe for use in cosmetic products up to that level.
  • [MeSH-major] Consumer Product Safety. Cosmetics / toxicity. Pyrones / toxicity. Skin

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  • HSDB. structure - KOJIC ACID.
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  • (PMID = 21164073.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-874X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Cosmetics; 0 / Irritants; 0 / Pyrones; 6K23F1TT52 / kojic acid
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84. |......... 7%  Johnson W Jr, Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel: Final report on the safety assessment of PEG-25 propylene glycol stearate, PEG-75 propylene glycol stearate, PEG-120 propylene glycol stearate, PEG-10 propylene glycol, PEG-8 propylene glycol cocoate, and PEG-55 propylene glycol oleate. Int J Toxicol; 2001;20 Suppl 4:13-26
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Final report on the safety assessment of PEG-25 propylene glycol stearate, PEG-75 propylene glycol stearate, PEG-120 propylene glycol stearate, PEG-10 propylene glycol, PEG-8 propylene glycol cocoate, and PEG-55 propylene glycol oleate.
  • The ingredients considered in this safety assessment are polyethylene glycol ethers of either propylene glycol itself, propylene glycol stearate, propylene glycol oleate, or propylene glycol cocoate.
  • They function in cosmetic formulations as surfactant--cleansing agents; surfactant-solubilizing agents; surfactant--emulsifying agents; skin conditioning agents--humectant; skin-conditioning agents--emollient; and solvents.
  • This product was also practically nonirritating to the skin of rabbits in single-insult occlusive patch tests.
  • Based on evidence of sensitization and nephrotoxicity in burn patients treated with a PEG-based antimicrobial preparation, the ingredients included in this review should not be used on damaged skin.
  • [MeSH-major] Consumer Product Safety. Cosmetics / toxicity. Polyethylene Glycols / toxicity. Propylene Glycols / toxicity. Surface-Active Agents / toxicity. Toxicity Tests

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  • (PMID = 11800049.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-5818
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cosmetics; 0 / Ethers; 0 / Polyethylene Glycols; 0 / Propylene Glycols; 0 / Surface-Active Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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85. |......... 7%  Lanigan S: Final report on the safety assessment of Methyl Alcohol. Int J Toxicol; 2001;20 Suppl 1:57-85
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  • [Title] Final report on the safety assessment of Methyl Alcohol.
  • Methyl Alcohol is readily absorbed through the skin and from the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, is distributed throughout all organs and tissues (in direct relation to the body's water distribution), and is eliminated primarily via the lungs.
  • Undiluted Methyl Alcohol is an ocular and skin irritant.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Consumer Product Safety. Cornea / drug effects. Drug Contamination / legislation & jurisprudence. Humans. Skin / drug effects. Skin / metabolism. Toxicity Tests

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  • HSDB. structure - SODIUM METHOXIDE.
  • HSDB. structure - METHANOL.
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  • (PMID = 11358111.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-5818
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] In Vitro; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cosmetics; 0 / Solvents; Y4S76JWI15 / Methanol
  • [Number-of-references] 139
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86. |......... 7%  Yoshida T, Yoshioka Y, Tsutsumi Y: [Safety assessment of nanomaterials for development of nano-cosmetics]. Yakugaku Zasshi; 2012;132(11):1231-6
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  • [Title] [Safety assessment of nanomaterials for development of nano-cosmetics].
  • On the other hands, the safety of NMs has not been well assessed, because NMs have been considered as safe as common larger sized materials which are known not to be absorbed by the body.
  • Because NMs have the potential to improve the quality of human life, it is essential to ensure the safety of NMs and provide information for designing safer NMs.
  • In the future, our study would help to set the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) and acceptable daily intake (ADI), and be useful information for the safety/hazard assessment and evaluation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Drug Design. Humans. Nanotubes, Carbon. No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level. Particle Size. Silicon Dioxide. Skin Absorption. Titanium

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  • HSDB. structure - TITANIUM DIOXIDE.
  • HSDB. structure - TITANIUM.
  • HSDB. structure - SILICON DIOXIDE.
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  • (PMID = 23123712.001).
  • [ISSN] 1347-5231
  • [Journal-full-title] Yakugaku zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Yakugaku Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cosmetics; 0 / Nanotubes, Carbon; 15FIX9V2JP / titanium dioxide; 7631-86-9 / Silicon Dioxide; D1JT611TNE / Titanium
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87. |......... 7%  Nair B: Final report on the safety assessment of Mentha Piperita (Peppermint) Oil, Mentha Piperita (Peppermint) Leaf Extract, Mentha Piperita (Peppermint) Leaf, and Mentha Piperita (Peppermint) Leaf Water. Int J Toxicol; 2001;20 Suppl 3:61-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Final report on the safety assessment of Mentha Piperita (Peppermint) Oil, Mentha Piperita (Peppermint) Leaf Extract, Mentha Piperita (Peppermint) Leaf, and Mentha Piperita (Peppermint) Leaf Water.
  • Most of the safety test data concern Peppermint Oil.
  • Formulators were cautioned that this enhanced penetration can affect the use of other ingredients whose safety assessment was based on their lack of absorption.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Carcinogenicity Tests. Cosmetics / adverse effects. Cosmetics / chemistry. Cosmetics / toxicity. Dermatitis, Phototoxic / etiology. Humans. Mentha piperita. Muscle Relaxation / drug effects. Muscle, Smooth / drug effects. Mutagenicity Tests. No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level. Plant Leaves / chemistry. Skin Diseases / chemically induced. Toxicity Tests, Acute. Viruses / drug effects

  • HSDB. structure - PEPPERMINT OIL.
  • HSDB. structure - VEGETABLE OIL.
  • HSDB. structure - MENTHOL.
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  • (PMID = 11766133.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-5818
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cosmetics; 0 / Monoterpenes; 0 / Oils, Volatile; 0 / Plant Extracts; 0 / Plant Oils; 1490-04-6 / Menthol; 4LF2673R3G / pulegone; 8006-90-4 / peppermint oil
  • [Number-of-references] 86
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88. |......... 7%  Final report of the safety assessment of Acacia catechu gum, Acacia concinna fruit extract, Acacia dealbata leaf extract, Acacia dealbata leaf wax, Acacia decurrens extract, Acacia farnesiana extract, Acacia farnesiana flower wax, Acacia farnesiana gum, Acacia senegal extract, Acacia senegal gum, and Acacia senegal gum extract. Int J Toxicol; 2005;24 Suppl 3:75-118
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Final report of the safety assessment of Acacia catechu gum, Acacia concinna fruit extract, Acacia dealbata leaf extract, Acacia dealbata leaf wax, Acacia decurrens extract, Acacia farnesiana extract, Acacia farnesiana flower wax, Acacia farnesiana gum, Acacia senegal extract, Acacia senegal gum, and Acacia senegal gum extract.
  • Cosmetic ingredient functions have been reported for Acacia Decurrens Extract (astringent; skin-conditioning agent--occlusive) and Acacia Farnesiana Extract (astringent), but not for the other Acacias included in this review.
  • Clinical testing indicated some evidence of skin sensitization with gum arabic.
  • The extensive safety test data on gum arabic supports the safety of Acacia Senegal Gum and Acacia Senegal Gum Extract, and it was concluded that these two ingredients are safe as used in cosmetic formulations.
  • Therefore, the available data were considered insufficient to support the safety of Acacia Catechu Gum, Acacia Concinna Fruit Extract, Acacia Dealbata Leaf Extract, Acacia Dealbata Leaf Wax, Acacia Decurrens Extract, Acacia Farnesiana Extract, Acacia Farnesiana Flower Wax, Acacia Farnesiana Gum, and Acacia Senegal Extract in cosmetic products.
  • The additional data needed to complete the safety assessment for these ingredients include (1) concentration of use;.
  • (4) skin sensitization study (i.e., dose response to be determined);.
  • [MeSH-major] Acacia / toxicity. Consumer Product Safety. Cosmetics / toxicity
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Expert Testimony. Humans. Plant Extracts / adverse effects. Plant Extracts / toxicity. Risk Assessment. Toxicity Tests

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  • (PMID = 16422266.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-5818
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cosmetics; 0 / Plant Extracts
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89. |......... 7%  Raposo S, Salgado A, Gonçalves L, Pinto PC, Urbano M, Ribeiro HM: Safety assessment and biological effects of a new cold processed SilEmulsion for dermatological purpose. Biomed Res Int; 2013;2013:181634
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  • [Title] Safety assessment and biological effects of a new cold processed SilEmulsion for dermatological purpose.
  • It is of crucial importance to evaluate the safety profile of the ingredients used in dermatological emulsions.
  • A suitable equilibrium between safety and efficacy is a pivotal concern before the marketing of a dermatological product.
  • The aim was to assess the safety and biological effects of a new cold processed silicone-based emulsion (SilEmulsion).
  • The hazard, exposure, and dose-response assessment were used to characterize the risk for each ingredient.
  • EpiSkin assay and human repeat insult patch tests were performed to compare the theoretical safety assessment to in vitro and in vivo data.
  • According to the safety assessment of the ingredients, 1,5-pentanediol was an ingredient of special concern since its margin of safety was below the threshold of 100 (36.53).
  • EpiSkin assay showed that the tissue viability after the application of the SilEmulsion was 92 ± 6% and, thus considered nonirritant to the skin.
  • The human studies confirmed that the SilEmulsion was not a skin irritant and did not induce any sensitization on the volunteers, being safe for human use.
  • Moreover, biological effects demonstrated that the SilEmulsion increased both the skin hydration and skin surface lipids.
  • [MeSH-major] Cold Temperature. Silicones / adverse effects. Silicones / pharmacology. Skin / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Emulsions / adverse effects. Female. Humans. Skin Irritancy Tests. Water. Water Loss, Insensible. Young Adult

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  • [Cites] Food Chem Toxicol. 2007 Dec;45(12):2341-51 [17723258.001]
  • [Cites] Int J Pharm. 2000 Feb 15;195(1-2):189-95 [10675696.001]
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  • [Cites] Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2007 Dec;49(3):208-16 [17919791.001]
  • (PMID = 24294598.001).
  • [ISSN] 2314-6141
  • [Journal-full-title] BioMed research international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomed Res Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Emulsions; 0 / Silicones; 059QF0KO0R / Water
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3835651
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90. |......... 7%  Lanigan RS, Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel: Final report on the safety assessment of PPG-11 and PPG-15 stearyl ethers. Int J Toxicol; 2001;20 Suppl 4:53-9
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  • [Title] Final report on the safety assessment of PPG-11 and PPG-15 stearyl ethers.
  • The Polypropylene Glycol (PPG) Stearyl Ethers are polypropylene ethers of stearyl ether that function as skin-conditioning agent in cosmetic formulations.
  • Data on chemically related PPG Butyl Ethers were reviewed as a further basis for the assessment of safety.
  • The amounts of PPG Butyl Ethers absorbed from the digestive tract were inversely proportional to the molecular weights on the compounds; skin penetration was slow to nil.
  • PPG-15 Stearyl Ether was slightly irritating to rabbit skin.
  • PPG-2 Butyl Ether did not irritate the skin of pregnant mice, was nontoxic to dams, and was not teratogenic.
  • These data were considered by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel to support the safety of PPG Stearyl Ethers at their current use concentrations (2% to 10%, but not greater than 25%).
  • Data on the component ingredients, Propylene Glycol, PPG, and Steraryl Alcohol, from previous cosmetic ingredient safety assessments were also considered and found to support the safety of PPG Stearyl Ethers.
  • [MeSH-major] Consumer Product Safety. Cosmetics / toxicity. Propylene Glycols / toxicity. Toxicity Tests

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  • (PMID = 11800052.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-5818
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cosmetics; 0 / Propylene Glycols; 0 / polyoxypropylene 11 stearyl ether; 25231-21-4 / polyoxypropylene 15 stearyl ether
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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91. |......... 7%  Elmore AR, Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel: Final report on the safety assessment of aluminum silicate, calcium silicate, magnesium aluminum silicate, magnesium silicate, magnesium trisilicate, sodium magnesium silicate, zirconium silicate, attapulgite, bentonite, Fuller's earth, hectorite, kaolin, lithium magnesium silicate, lithium magnesium sodium silicate, montmorillonite, pyrophyllite, and zeolite. Int J Toxicol; 2003;22 Suppl 1:37-102
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  • [Title] Final report on the safety assessment of aluminum silicate, calcium silicate, magnesium aluminum silicate, magnesium silicate, magnesium trisilicate, sodium magnesium silicate, zirconium silicate, attapulgite, bentonite, Fuller's earth, hectorite, kaolin, lithium magnesium silicate, lithium magnesium sodium silicate, montmorillonite, pyrophyllite, and zeolite.
  • This report reviews the safety of Aluminum, Calcium, Lithium Magnesium, Lithium Magnesium Sodium, Magnesium Aluminum, Magnesium, Sodium Magnesium, and Zirconium Silicates, Magnesium Trisilicate, Attapulgite, Bentonite, Fuller's Earth, Hectorite, Kaolin, Montmorillonite, Pyrophyllite, and Zeolite as used in cosmetic formulations.
  • Magnesium Aluminum Silicate was a weak primary skin irritant in rabbits and had no cumulative skin irritation in guinea pigs.
  • Sodium Magnesium Silicate had no primary skin irritation in rabbits and had no cumulative skin irritation in guinea pigs.
  • Hectorite was nonirritating to the skin of rabbits in a Draize primary skin irritation study.
  • Topical application of Magnesium Aluminum Silicate to human skin daily for 1 week produced no adverse effects.
  • Because it has a unique crystalline structure that differs from ingredients addressed in this safety assessment, Talc is not included in this report.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Drug Administration Routes. Humans. Irritants / toxicity. Risk Assessment. Toxicity Tests

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  • (PMID = 12851164.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-5818
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cosmetics; 0 / Irritants; 0 / Metals; 0 / Silicates
  • [Number-of-references] 214
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92. |......... 7%  Bozkurt A, Onaral B: Safety assessment of near infrared light emitting diodes for diffuse optical measurements. Biomed Eng Online; 2004 Mar 22;3(1):9
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  • [Title] Safety assessment of near infrared light emitting diodes for diffuse optical measurements.
  • These and other similar applications employ either lasers or light emitting diodes (LED) as the source of the NIR light.
  • METHODS: Temperature increase of the human skin caused by near infrared LED has been measured by means of in-vivo and in-vitro experiments.
  • RESULTS: Elevations in skin temperature up to 10 degrees C have been observed.
  • It has been shown that adjusting operational parameters by amplitude modulating or time multiplexing the LED decreases the temperature increase of the skin significantly.
  • CONCLUSION: In this study, we demonstrate that the major risk source of the LED in direct contact with skin is the conducted heat of the LED semiconductor junction, which may cause serious skin burns.
  • [MeSH-major] Optics and Photonics / instrumentation. Radiation, Nonionizing. Skin Temperature / radiation effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Light. Semiconductors. Skin / radiation effects

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  • [Cites] Health Phys. 2000 Jun;78(6):744-52 [10832937.001]
  • [Cites] J Biomed Opt. 2000 Oct;5(4):383-90 [11092426.001]
  • [Cites] Trends Neurosci. 1997 Oct;20(10):435-42 [9347608.001]
  • [Cites] Anesthesiology. 1990 Aug;73(2):350-2 [2382860.001]
  • [Cites] Pediatrics. 1992 Jan;89(1):154-5 [1345801.001]
  • [Cites] Anesth Analg. 2002 Jan;94(1 Suppl):S4-7 [11900036.001]
  • (PMID = 15035670.001).
  • [ISSN] 1475-925X
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomedical engineering online
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomed Eng Online
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC406415
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93. |......... 7%  Amended final report on the safety assessment of glyceryl dilaurate, glyceryl diarachidate, glyceryl dibehenate, glyceryl dierucate, glyceryl dihydroxystearate, glyceryl diisopalmitate, glyceryl diisostearate, glyceryl dilinoleate, glyceryl dimyristate, glyceryl dioleate, glyceryl diricinoleate, glyceryl dipalmitate, glyceryl dipalmitoleate, glyceryl distearate, glyceryl palmitate lactate, glyceryl stearate citrate, glyceryl stearate lactate, and glyceryl stearate succinate. Int J Toxicol; 2007;26 Suppl 3:1-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Amended final report on the safety assessment of glyceryl dilaurate, glyceryl diarachidate, glyceryl dibehenate, glyceryl dierucate, glyceryl dihydroxystearate, glyceryl diisopalmitate, glyceryl diisostearate, glyceryl dilinoleate, glyceryl dimyristate, glyceryl dioleate, glyceryl diricinoleate, glyceryl dipalmitate, glyceryl dipalmitoleate, glyceryl distearate, glyceryl palmitate lactate, glyceryl stearate citrate, glyceryl stearate lactate, and glyceryl stearate succinate.
  • Glyceryl Dilaurate, Glyceryl Diarachidate, Glyceryl Dibehenate, Glyceryl Dierucate, Glyceryl Dihydroxystearate, Glyceryl Diisopalmitate, Glyceryl Diisostearate, Glyceryl Dilinoleate, Glyceryl Dimyristate, Glyceryl Dioleate, Glyceryl Diricinoleate, Glyceryl Dipalmitate, Glyceryl Dipalmitoleate, Glyceryl Distearate, Glyceryl Palmitate Lactate, Glyceryl Stearate Citrate, Glyceryl Stearate Lactate, and Glyceryl Stearate Succinate are diacylglycerols (also known as diglycerides or glyceryl diesters) that function as skin conditioning agents - emollients in cosmetics.
  • Glyceryl Dilaurate was a mild primary irritant in albino rabbits, but not a skin sensitizer in guinea pig maximization tests.
  • An eye shadow containing 1.5% Glyceryl Dilaurate did not induce skin irritation in a single insult patch test, but mild skin irritation reactions to a foundation containing the same concentration were observed.
  • In maximization tests, neither an eye shadow nor a foundation containing 1.5% Glyceryl Dilaurate was a skin sensitizer.
  • Glyceryl Palmitate Lactate (50% w/v) did not induce skin irritation or sensitization in subjects patch tested in a repeat-insult patch test.
  • In a glyceryl monoester study, a single application of DMBA to the skin followed by 5% Glyceryl Stearate twice weekly produced no tumors, but slight epidermal hyperplasia at the site of application.
  • A histological evaluation was performed on human skin from female volunteers (18 to 56 years old) who had applied a prototype lotion or placebo formulation, both containing 0.5% Glyceryl Dilaurate, consecutively for 16 weeks or 21 weeks.
  • Skin irritation was not observed in any of the subjects tested.
  • Biopsies (2 mm) taken from both legs of five subjects indicated no recognizable abnormalities of the skin; the epidermis was normal in thickness, and there was no evidence of scaling, inflammation, or neoplasms in any of the tissues that were evaluated.
  • The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel considered that the available safety test data indicate that diglycerides in the 1,3-diester form do not present any significant acute toxicity risk, nor are these ingredients irritating, sensitizing, or photosensitizing.
  • Most of the diglycerides considered in this safety assessment, however, have fatty acid chains longer than 14 carbons and none have mixed saturated/unsaturated fatty acid moieties.
  • In the absence of inhalation toxicity data on the Glyceryl Diesters in this safety assessment, the Panel determined that these ingredients can be used safely in aerosolized products because they are not respirable.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Consumer Product Safety. Humans. Toxicity Tests

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  • (PMID = 18273450.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-5818
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cosmetics; 0 / Emollients; 0 / Fatty Acids
  • [Number-of-references] 101
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94. |......... 7%  Lanigan RS: Final report on the safety assessment of Stearamide DIBA-Stearate. Int J Toxicol; 2001;20 Suppl 3:91-7
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  • [Title] Final report on the safety assessment of Stearamide DIBA-Stearate.
  • Data on related ingredients, including Dibutyl Adipate, Diisopropyl Adipate, Stearamide DEA, and Stearamide MEA, were considered in the assessment of safety.
  • In studies using rabbits, undiluted Dibutyl Adipate caused mild to moderate skin irritation and minimal ocular irritation.
  • In skin irritation studies using rabbits, 5.0% to 100% Diisopropyl Adipate caused minimal to mild irritation; these results were also seen in clinical testing with only moderate cumulative irritation, and no sensitization or photosensitization.
  • In studies using rabbits, Stearamide DEA (35% to 40%) was not a skin or ocular irritant, and Stearamide MEA (5.27%) was not an ocular irritant.
  • At 17%, Stearamide MEA was not irritating to the skin, but caused minimal to moderate irritation to the eyes of rabbits.
  • Absent these data, it was concluded that the available data are insufficient to support the safety of Stearamide DIBA-Stearate as used in cosmetic products.

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  • (PMID = 11766136.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-5818
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adipates; 0 / Cosmetics; 0 / Diethylamines; 0 / Stearates; 0 / Stearic Acids; 0 / Teratogens; 0 / stearamide dihydroxyisobutylamine-stearate; 25FFJ4209Z / stearamidoethyl diethylamine; P7E6YFV72X / diisopropyl adipate
  • [Number-of-references] 9
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95. |......... 7%  Fiume MM, Heldreth B, Bergfeld WF, Belsito DV, Hill RA, Klaassen CD, Liebler DC, Marks JG Jr, Shank RC, Slaga TJ, Snyder PW, Andersen FA: Safety assessment of diethanolamides as used in cosmetics. Int J Toxicol; 2013 May-Jun;32(3 Suppl):36S-58S
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  • [Title] Safety assessment of diethanolamides as used in cosmetics.
  • Cocamide diethanolamine (DEA) and some of the other diethanolamides are mainly used as surfactant foam boosters or viscosity increasing agents in cosmetics, although a few are reported to be used as hair and skin conditioning agents, surfactant-cleansing or surfactant-emulsifying agents, or as an opacifying agent.
  • The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel considered new data and information from previous CIR reports to assess the concerns about the potential for amidases in human skin to convert these diethanolamides into DEA and the corresponding fatty acids.
  • [MeSH-major] Amides / toxicity. Consumer Product Safety. Cosmetics / toxicity. Ethanolamines / toxicity

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  • HSDB. structure - DIETHANOLAMINE.
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  • (PMID = 23696577.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-874X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Amides; 0 / Cosmetics; 0 / Ethanolamines; 111-42-2 / diethanolamine
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; cocamide DEA / diethanolamides
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96. |......... 7%  Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel: Final report on the safety assessment of Glycyrrhetinic Acid, Potassium Glycyrrhetinate, Disodium Succinoyl Glycyrrhetinate, Glyceryl Glycyrrhetinate, Glycyrrhetinyl Stearate, Stearyl Glycyrrhetinate, Glycyrrhizic Acid, Ammonium Glycyrrhizate, Dipotassium Glycyrrhizate, Disodium Glycyrrhizate, Trisodium Glycyrrhizate, Methyl Glycyrrhizate, and Potassium Glycyrrhizinate. Int J Toxicol; 2007;26 Suppl 2:79-112
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Final report on the safety assessment of Glycyrrhetinic Acid, Potassium Glycyrrhetinate, Disodium Succinoyl Glycyrrhetinate, Glyceryl Glycyrrhetinate, Glycyrrhetinyl Stearate, Stearyl Glycyrrhetinate, Glycyrrhizic Acid, Ammonium Glycyrrhizate, Dipotassium Glycyrrhizate, Disodium Glycyrrhizate, Trisodium Glycyrrhizate, Methyl Glycyrrhizate, and Potassium Glycyrrhizinate.
  • Glycyrrhetinic Acid and its salts and esters and Glycyrrhizic Acid and its salts and esters are cosmetic ingredients that function as flavoring agents or skin-conditioning agents - miscellaneous or both.
  • Dipotassium Glycyrrhizate was undetectable in the receptor chamber when tested for transepidermal permeation through pig skin.
  • Glycyrrhizic Acid increased the dermal penetration of diclofenac sodium in rat skin.
  • In humans, Glycyrrhetinic Acid potentiated the effects of hydrocortisone in the skin.
  • Glycyrrhetinic Acid was not irritating to shaved rabbit skin, but was considered slightly irritating in an in vitro test.
  • Glycyrrhetinic Acid at concentrations up to 6% was not a skin irritant or a sensitizer in clinical tests.
  • The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel noted that the ingredients in this safety assessment are not plant extracts, powders, or juices, but rather are specific chemical species that may be isolated from the licorice plant.
  • Although the Panel noted that Glycyrrhizic Acid is cytotoxic at high doses and ingestion can have physiological effects, there is little acute, short-term, subchronic, or chronic toxicity and it is expected that these ingredients would be poorly absorbed through the skin.
  • [MeSH-major] Consumer Product Safety. Cosmetics / toxicity. Glycyrrhetinic Acid / toxicity. Glycyrrhiza / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Consensus. Humans. Plant Extracts / toxicity. Risk Assessment. Toxicity Tests

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  • (PMID = 17613133.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-874X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cosmetics; 0 / Plant Extracts; P540XA09DR / Glycyrrhetinic Acid
  • [Number-of-references] 138
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97. |......... 7%  Hood DD, Eisenach JC, Tuttle R: Phase I safety assessment of intrathecal neostigmine methylsulfate in humans. Anesthesiology; 1995 Feb;82(2):331-43
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  • [Title] Phase I safety assessment of intrathecal neostigmine methylsulfate in humans.
  • Safety measurements included blood pressure, heart rate, oxyhemoglobin saturation, end-tidal carbon dioxide, neurologic evaluation, and computer tests of vigilance and memory.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Analgesia. Blood Pressure / drug effects. Cognition / drug effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Heart Rate / drug effects. Humans. Male. Nausea / chemically induced. Needles. Regional Blood Flow / drug effects. Respiration / drug effects. Skin / blood supply

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  • [CommentIn] Anesthesiology. 1995 Feb;82(2):327-8 [7856889.001]
  • [CommentIn] Anesthesiology. 1995 Jun;82(6):1543 [7793677.001]
  • (PMID = 7856891.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-3022
  • [Journal-full-title] Anesthesiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anesthesiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM48085; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01 RR07122
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] UNITED STATES
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3982TWQ96G / Neostigmine
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98. |......... 7%  Fiume Z: Final report on the safety assessment of Lecithin and Hydrogenated Lecithin. Int J Toxicol; 2001;20 Suppl 1:21-45
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Final report on the safety assessment of Lecithin and Hydrogenated Lecithin.
  • Lecithin and Hydrogenated Lecithin are used in a large number of cosmetic formulations as skin conditioning agents-miscellaneous and as surfactant-emulsifying agents.
  • Nonocclusive application of Lecithin-containing liposomes to murine skin resulted in 30% penetration to the subdermis.
  • In piglet skin, the same application resulted in 99% accumulating in the stratum corneum.
  • In general, liposomes are considered effective in capturing other compounds inside their spherical structure and delivering any such captured compound through the skin barrier.
  • As a result, caution should be exhibited in formulating cosmetic products that contain these ingredients in combination with other ingredients whose safety is based on their lack of absorption or where dermal absorption is a concern.
  • Lecithin and Hydrogenated Lecithin were generally nonirritating and nonsensitizing in animal and human skin.
  • Based on the available data, Lecithin and Hydrogenated Lecithin are safe as used in rinse-off cosmetic products; they may be safely used in leave-on products at concentrations up to 15%, the highest concentration tested in clinical irritation and sensitization studies; but the safety of use could not be substantiated in cosmetic products likely to be inhaled.
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Inhalation. Animals. Attention. Consumer Product Safety. Drug Carriers. Hair Preparations / adverse effects. Humans. Liposomes / adverse effects. Liposomes / metabolism. Skin / metabolism. Skin Care / adverse effects. Skin Irritancy Tests

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  • (PMID = 11358109.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-5818
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cosmetics; 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Hair Preparations; 0 / Liposomes; 0 / Phosphatidylcholines
  • [Number-of-references] 98
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99. |......... 7%  Amended final report on the safety assessment of polyacrylamide and acrylamide residues in cosmetics. Int J Toxicol; 2005;24 Suppl 2:21-50
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  • [Title] Amended final report on the safety assessment of polyacrylamide and acrylamide residues in cosmetics.
  • Because of the large sizes of Polyacrylamide polymers, they do not penetrate the skin.
  • Acrylamide monomer residues do penetrate the skin.
  • An Australian risk assessment suggested negligible health risks from acrylamide in cosmetics.
  • Although there are mechanisms of action of acrylamide that have been proposed for tumor types seen in rat studies that suggest they may be unique to the rat, the Panel was not convinced that these results could be disregarded as a species-specific finding with no relevance to human health and safety.
  • Based on the genotoxicity and carcinogenicity data, the Panel does not believe that acrylamide is a genotoxic carcinogen in the usual manner and that several of the risk assessment approaches have overestimated the human cancer risk.
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Animals. Carcinogenicity Tests. Drosophila. Eye Diseases / chemically induced. Growth / drug effects. Humans. Irritants. Mammals. Mutagenicity Tests. Skin Absorption. Skin Tests. Teratogens / toxicity

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  • (PMID = 16154914.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-5818
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acrylamides; 0 / Acrylic Resins; 0 / Cosmetics; 0 / Irritants; 0 / Teratogens; 9003-05-8 / polyacrylamide
  • [Number-of-references] 99
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100. |......... 7%  Stavanja MS, Curtin GM, Ayres PH, Bombick ER, Borgerding MF, Morgan WT, Garner CD, Pence DH, Swauger JE: Safety assessment of diammonium phosphate and urea used in the manufacture of cigarettes. Exp Toxicol Pathol; 2008 Apr;59(6):339-53
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  • [Title] Safety assessment of diammonium phosphate and urea used in the manufacture of cigarettes.
  • As part of ongoing stewardship efforts, a toxicological assessment of cigarettes with and without DAP and urea was conducted.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinogens / toxicity. Consumer Product Safety. Mutagens / toxicity. Phosphates / toxicity. Tobacco / chemistry. Urea / toxicity
  • [MeSH-minor] 9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene / toxicity. Animals. Body Weight / drug effects. CHO Cells. Cocarcinogenesis. Cricetinae. Cricetulus. Female. Inhalation Exposure. Male. Organ Size / drug effects. Organ Specificity. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Salmonella typhimurium / drug effects. Salmonella typhimurium / genetics. Sister Chromatid Exchange / drug effects. Skin Neoplasms / chemically induced. Tars / chemistry. Tars / toxicity. Tobacco Industry / standards. Toxicity Tests

  • HSDB. structure - UREA.
  • HSDB. structure - 7,12-DIMETHYLBENZ(A)ANTHRACENE.
  • HSDB. structure - MONOAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE.
  • HSDB. structure - DIAMMONIUM PHOSPHATE.
  • ExactAntigen/Labome. author profiles.
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  • (PMID = 18272354.001).
  • [ISSN] 0940-2993
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and toxicologic pathology : official journal of the Gesellschaft für Toxikologische Pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Toxicol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / Mutagens; 0 / Phosphates; 0 / Tars; 0 / tobacco tar; 10124-31-9 / ammonium phosphate; 57-97-6 / 9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene; 8W8T17847W / Urea
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